4 X 5 Large Format Camera

By | 14/11/2022

Shape and size of a digital camera’s paradigm sensor

Comparative dimensions of sensor sizes

In digital photography, the
image sensor format
is the shape and size of the paradigm sensor.

The image sensor format of a digital photographic camera determines the bending of view of a particular lens when used with a detail sensor. Because the image sensors in many digital cameras are smaller than the 24 mm × 36 mm image area of total-frame 35 mm cameras, a lens of a given focal length gives a narrower field of view in such cameras.

Sensor size is often expressed equally optical format in inches. Other measures are besides used; come across table of sensor formats and sizes below.

Lenses produced for 35 mm film cameras may mountain well on the digital bodies, but the larger image circle of the 35 mm system lens allows unwanted light into the camera body, and the smaller size of the image sensor compared to 35 mm moving picture format results in cropping of the image. This latter result is known equally field-of-view crop. The format size ratio (relative to the 35 mm motion picture format) is known as the field-of-view crop factor, crop factor, lens factor, focal-length conversion factor, focal-length multiplier, or lens multiplier.

Sensor size and depth of field

Iii possible depth-of-field comparisons between formats are discussed, applying the formulae derived in the article on depth of field. The depths of field of the three cameras may exist the same, or different in either order, depending on what is held constant in the comparing.

Considering a movie with the same subject distance and bending of view for 2 different formats:

${\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {d_{1}}{d_{2}}}}$

D
O
F

2

D
O
F

i

d

i

d

ii

{\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{two}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {d_{one}}{d_{ii}}}}

so the DOFs are in inverse proportion to the absolute aperture diameters

${\displaystyle d_{1}}$

d

1

{\displaystyle d_{1}}

and

${\displaystyle d_{2}}$

d

two

{\displaystyle d_{2}}

.

Using the same absolute discontinuity diameter for both formats with the “same motion-picture show” benchmark (equal angle of view, magnified to same final size) yields the aforementioned depth of field. It is equivalent to adjusting the f-number inversely in proportion to crop cistron – a smaller f-number for smaller sensors (this also means that, when holding the shutter speed stock-still, the exposure is changed past the adjustment of the f-number required to equalise depth of field. But the aperture area is held constant, so sensors of all sizes receive the aforementioned total amount of light energy from the subject area. The smaller sensor is and so operating at a lower ISO setting, by the square of the ingather factor). This condition of equal field of view, equal depth of field, equal aperture bore, and equal exposure time is known as “equivalence”.[1]

And, we might compare the depth of field of sensors receiving the same photometric exposure – the f-number is fixed instead of the aperture diameter – the sensors are operating at the aforementioned ISO setting in that case, but the smaller sensor is receiving less total light, by the area ratio. The ratio of depths of field is and so

${\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {l_{1}}{l_{2}}}}$

D
O
F

2

D
O
F

1

50

1

l

2

{\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{two}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {l_{one}}{l_{two}}}}

where

${\displaystyle l_{1}}$

fifty

i

{\displaystyle l_{ane}}

and

${\displaystyle l_{2}}$

l

2

{\displaystyle l_{2}}

are the characteristic dimensions of the format, and thus

${\displaystyle l_{1}/l_{2}}$

l

one

/

l

2

{\displaystyle l_{i}/l_{2}}

is the relative crop gene between the sensors. It is this result that gives rise to the mutual opinion that modest sensors yield greater depth of field than large ones.

An alternative is to consider the depth of field given past the aforementioned lens in conjunction with different sized sensors (irresolute the angle of view). The change in depth of field is brought about by the requirement for a different degree of enlargement to achieve the same terminal image size. In this case the ratio of depths of field becomes

${\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {l_{2}}{l_{1}}}}$

D
O
F

2

D
O
F

ane

l

two

l

1

{\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{i}}}\approx {\frac {l_{two}}{l_{1}}}}

.

In practice, if applying a lens with a fixed focal length and a fixed aperture and made for an image circle to meet the requirements for a large sensor is to be adjusted, without changing its concrete properties, to smaller sensor sizes neither the depth of field nor the light gathering

${\displaystyle \mathrm {lx=\,{\frac {lm}{m^{2}}}} }$

l
x
=

50
yard

yard

ii

{\displaystyle \mathrm {lx=\,{\frac {lm}{m^{ii}}}} }

will change.

Sensor size, dissonance and dynamic range

Discounting photograph response non-uniformity (PRNU) and night dissonance variation, which are non intrinsically sensor-size dependent, the noises in an image sensor are shot noise, read noise, and dark racket. The overall signal to noise ratio of a sensor (SNR), expressed equally point electrons relative to rms noise in electrons, observed at the calibration of a single pixel, assuming shot noise from Poisson distribution of signal electrons and dark electrons, is

${\displaystyle \mathrm {SNR} ={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {\left({\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}\right)^{2}+\left({\sqrt {Dt}}\right)^{2}+N_{r}^{2}}}}={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t+Dt+N_{r}^{2}}}}}$

Southward
Due north
R

=

P

Q

e

t

(

P

Q

east

t

)

two

+

(

D
t

)

2

+

North

r

2

=

P

Q

due east

t

P

Q

east

t
+
D
t
+

N

r

two

{\displaystyle \mathrm {SNR} ={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {\left({\sqrt {PQ_{east}t}}\right)^{2}+\left({\sqrt {Dt}}\right)^{two}+N_{r}^{two}}}}={\frac {PQ_{eastward}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t+Dt+N_{r}^{2}}}}}

where

${\displaystyle P}$

P

{\displaystyle P}

is the incident photon flux (photons per 2d in the area of a pixel),

${\displaystyle Q_{e}}$

Q

e

{\displaystyle Q_{e}}

is the breakthrough efficiency,

${\displaystyle t}$

t

{\displaystyle t}

is the exposure time,

${\displaystyle D}$

D

{\displaystyle D}

is the pixel dark electric current in electrons per 2d and

${\displaystyle N_{r}}$

Northward

r

{\displaystyle N_{r}}

is the pixel read racket in electrons rms.[2]

Each of these noises has a different dependency on sensor size.

Exposure and photon flux

Image sensor dissonance tin can be compared across formats for a given fixed photon flux per pixel area (the
P
in the formulas); this analysis is useful for a fixed number of pixels with pixel area proportional to sensor area, and fixed absolute aperture diameter for a fixed imaging state of affairs in terms of depth of field, diffraction limit at the bailiwick, etc. Or it can be compared for a fixed focal-plane illuminance, corresponding to a fixed f-number, in which case
P
is proportional to pixel surface area, independent of sensor area. The formulas above and below can be evaluated for either case.

Shot noise

In the above equation, the shot noise SNR is given by

${\displaystyle {\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}}={\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}}$

P

Q

e

t

P

Q

e

t

=

P

Q

e

t

{\displaystyle {\frac {PQ_{east}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{due east}t}}}={\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}}

.

Autonomously from the breakthrough efficiency it depends on the incident photon flux and the exposure time, which is equivalent to the exposure and the sensor area; since the exposure is the integration fourth dimension multiplied with the prototype plane illuminance, and illuminance is the luminous flux per unit surface area. Thus for equal exposures, the bespeak to noise ratios of ii dissimilar size sensors of equal quantum efficiency and pixel count volition (for a given last paradigm size) exist in proportion to the square root of the sensor surface area (or the linear calibration gene of the sensor). If the exposure is constrained by the demand to reach some required depth of field (with the aforementioned shutter speed) so the exposures will be in inverse relation to the sensor area, producing the interesting event that if depth of field is a constraint, epitome shot racket is not dependent on sensor expanse. For identical f-number lenses the betoken to noise ratio increases equally square root of the pixel area, or linearly with pixel pitch. Equally typical f-numbers for lenses for prison cell phones and DSLR are in the aforementioned range f/ane.5-f/2 it is interesting to compare operation of cameras with small and big sensors. A good cell telephone photographic camera with typical pixel size 1.1 μm (Samsung A8) would accept nigh iii times worse SNR due to shot racket than a iii.vii μm pixel interchangeable lens photographic camera (Panasonic G85) and five times worse than a six μm full frame camera (Sony A7 3). Taking into consideration the dynamic range makes the departure even more than prominent. As such the trend of increasing the number of “megapixels” in prison cell phone cameras during last 10 years was caused rather by marketing strategy to sell “more megapixels” than past attempts to meliorate epitome quality.

The read dissonance is the full of all the electronic noises in the conversion chain for the pixels in the sensor array. To compare it with photon noise, information technology must be referred back to its equivalent in photoelectrons, which requires the segmentation of the dissonance measured in volts past the conversion gain of the pixel. This is given, for an agile pixel sensor, by the voltage at the input (gate) of the read transistor divided past the charge which generates that voltage,

${\displaystyle CG=V_{rt}/Q_{rt}}$

C
G
=

V

r
t

/

Q

r
t

{\displaystyle CG=V_{rt}/Q_{rt}}

. This is the inverse of the capacitance of the read transistor gate (and the attached floating diffusion) since capacitance

${\displaystyle C=Q/V}$

C
=
Q

/

V

{\displaystyle C=Q/Five}

.[three]
Thus

${\displaystyle CG=1/C_{rt}}$

C
M
=
1

/

C

r
t

{\displaystyle CG=i/C_{rt}}

.

In general for a planar construction such every bit a pixel, capacitance is proportional to expanse, therefore the read racket scales down with sensor area, as long as pixel area scales with sensor area, and that scaling is performed by uniformly scaling the pixel.

Considering the indicate to noise ratio due to read dissonance at a given exposure, the signal volition scale as the sensor surface area along with the read noise and therefore read noise SNR volition be unaffected past sensor expanse. In a depth of field constrained situation, the exposure of the larger sensor will exist reduced in proportion to the sensor expanse, and therefore the read noise SNR will reduce likewise.

Dark racket

Dark electric current contributes two kinds of racket: night beginning, which is but partly correlated between pixels, and the shot noise associated with nighttime beginning, which is uncorrelated between pixels. Only the shot-racket component
Dt
is included in the formula above, since the uncorrelated part of the dark offset is hard to predict, and the correlated or hateful part is relatively easy to subtract off. The mean dark electric current contains contributions proportional both to the area and the linear dimension of the photodiode, with the relative proportions and calibration factors depending on the blueprint of the photodiode.[4]
Thus in full general the dark noise of a sensor may be expected to rise as the size of the sensor increases. However, in virtually sensors the mean pixel nighttime current at normal temperatures is small, lower than 50 due east- per second,[5]
thus for typical photographic exposure times dark current and its associated noises may exist discounted. At very long exposure times, still, it may be a limiting factor. And fifty-fifty at short or medium exposure times, a few outliers in the dark-current distribution may testify upwardly equally “hot pixels”. Typically, for astrophotography applications sensors are cooled to reduce dark electric current in situations where exposures may be measured in several hundreds of seconds.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range is the ratio of the largest and smallest recordable bespeak, the smallest being typically defined past the ‘racket floor’. In the image sensor literature, the noise floor is taken equally the readout noise, so

${\displaystyle DR=Q_{\text{max}}/\sigma _{\text{readout}}}$

D
R
=

Q

max

/

σ

[six]

${\displaystyle \sigma _{readout}}$

σ

r
e
a
d
o
u
t

is the same quantity as

${\displaystyle N_{r}}$

Northward

r

{\displaystyle N_{r}}

referred to in the SNR calculation[2]).

Sensor size and diffraction

The resolution of all optical systems is limited by diffraction. 1 fashion of considering the effect that diffraction has on cameras using different sized sensors is to consider the modulation transfer office (MTF). Diffraction is one of the factors that contribute to the overall system MTF. Other factors are typically the MTFs of the lens, anti-aliasing filter and sensor sampling window.[seven]
The spatial cut-off frequency due to diffraction through a lens aperture is

${\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }={\frac {1}{\lambda N}}}$

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

=

ane

λ

N

{\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }={\frac {ane}{\lambda N}}}

where λ is the wavelength of the low-cal passing through the arrangement and Northward is the f-number of the lens. If that aperture is circular, as are (approximately) most photographic apertures, then the MTF is given by

${\displaystyle \mathrm {MTF} \left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)={\frac {2}{\pi }}\left\{\cos ^{-1}\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)\left[1-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)^{2}\right]^{\frac {1}{2}}\right\}}$

M
T
F

(

ξ

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

)

=

2
π

{

cos

1

(

ξ

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

)

(

ξ

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

)

[

1

(

ξ

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

)

2

]

1
2

}

{\displaystyle \mathrm {MTF} \left({\frac {\eleven }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)={\frac {two}{\pi }}\left\{\cos ^{-1}\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)\left[1-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\correct)^{2}\right]^{\frac {1}{two}}\right\}}

for

${\displaystyle \eleven <\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}$

ξ

<

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

{\displaystyle \xi <\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}

and

${\displaystyle 0}$

0

{\displaystyle 0}

for

${\displaystyle \xi \geq \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}$

ξ

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

{\displaystyle \xi \geq \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}

[viii]
The diffraction based gene of the system MTF will therefore scale according to

${\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}$

ξ

c
u
t
o
f
f

{\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}

and in turn according to

${\displaystyle 1/N}$

one

/

N

{\displaystyle 1/North}

(for the same light wavelength).

In considering the result of sensor size, and its effect on the terminal paradigm, the dissimilar magnification required to obtain the same size paradigm for viewing must be accounted for, resulting in an additional calibration gene of

${\displaystyle 1/{C}}$

one

/

C

{\displaystyle one/{C}}

where

${\displaystyle {C}}$

C

{\displaystyle {C}}

is the relative ingather factor, making the overall scale cistron

${\displaystyle 1/(NC)}$

one

/

(
North
C
)

{\displaystyle ane/(NC)}

. Considering the 3 cases above:

For the ‘same picture’ atmospheric condition, same angle of view, subject distance and depth of field, and so the F-numbers are in the ratio

${\displaystyle 1/C}$

1

/

C

{\displaystyle i/C}

, so the scale factor for the diffraction MTF is 1, leading to the decision that the diffraction MTF at a given depth of field is contained of sensor size.

In both the ‘same photometric exposure’ and ‘aforementioned lens’ weather condition, the F-number is non changed, and thus the spatial cutoff and resultant MTF on the sensor is unchanged, leaving the MTF in the viewed image to be scaled as the magnification, or inversely as the ingather cistron.

Sensor format and lens size

It might be expected that lenses appropriate for a range of sensor sizes could be produced by simply scaling the aforementioned designs in proportion to the crop cistron.[9]
Such an exercise would in theory produce a lens with the same F-number and angle of view, with a size proportional to the sensor crop factor. In exercise, simple scaling of lens designs is not always achievable, due to factors such as the non-scalability of manufacturing tolerance, structural integrity of glass lenses of different sizes and available manufacturing techniques and costs. Moreover, to maintain the same absolute amount of information in an epitome (which can be measured as the space bandwidth production[10]) the lens for a smaller sensor requires a greater resolving power. The development of the ‘Tessar’ lens is discussed past Nasse,[11]
and shows its transformation from an f/6.iii lens for plate cameras using the original three-group configuration through to an f/2.viii 5.2 mm four-element optic with eight extremely aspheric surfaces, economically manufacturable because of its minor size. Its performance is ‘better than the best 35 mm lenses – merely simply for a very small prototype’.

In summary, as sensor size reduces, the accompanying lens designs will change, often quite radically, to take advantage of manufacturing techniques made bachelor due to the reduced size. The functionality of such lenses tin can also take advantage of these, with farthermost zoom ranges becoming possible. These lenses are frequently very large in relation to sensor size, but with a small sensor tin be fitted into a compact package.

Small trunk means small lens and means pocket-size sensor, and then to keep smartphones slim and light, the smartphone manufacturers use a tiny sensor commonly less than the ane/2.3″ used in most span cameras. At one fourth dimension only Nokia 808 PureView used a one/1.2″ sensor, most three times the size of a 1/2.3″ sensor. Bigger sensors have the advantage of better image quality, but with improvements in sensor technology, smaller sensors tin achieve the feats of earlier larger sensors. These improvements in sensor technology allow smartphone manufacturers to use prototype sensors equally modest as ane/four” without sacrificing too much image quality compared to upkeep indicate & shoot cameras.[12]

Active area of the sensor

For computing camera angle of view one should use the size of active area of the sensor. Active area of the sensor implies an expanse of the sensor on which prototype is formed in a given manner of the camera. The active area may be smaller than the image sensor, and active surface area can differ in different modes of performance of the same camera. Active area size depends on the aspect ratio of the sensor and attribute ratio of the output paradigm of the camera. The active area size tin depend on number of pixels in given mode of the camera. The active area size and lens focal length determines angles of view.[xiii]

Semiconductor image sensors tin suffer from shading effects at large apertures and at the periphery of the paradigm field, due to the geometry of the lite cone projected from the leave pupil of the lens to a point, or pixel, on the sensor surface. The furnishings are discussed in detail by Catrysse and Wandell .[14]
In the context of this discussion the most important result from the above is that to ensure a full transfer of light free energy between two coupled optical systems such as the lens’ leave pupil to a pixel’s photoreceptor the geometrical extent (too known as etendue or calorie-free throughput) of the objective lens / pixel system must be smaller than or equal to the geometrical extent of the microlens / photoreceptor system. The geometrical extent of the objective lens / pixel system is given by

${\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {objective} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}$

1000

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
five
eastward

w

p
i
x
e
fifty

2

(
f

/

#

)

o
b
j
due east
c
t
i
v
e

{\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {objective} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}

,

where

wpixel

is the width of the pixel and

(f/#)objective

is the f-number of the objective lens. The geometrical extent of the microlens / photoreceptor arrangement is given by

${\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}}$

Thou

p
i
x
eastward
l

w

p
h
o
t
o
r
e
c
east
p
t
o
r

2

(
f

/

#

)

k
i
c
r
o
l
e
n
s

{\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}}

,

where

wphotoreceptor

is the width of the photoreceptor and

(f/#)microlens

is the f-number of the microlens.

${\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\geq G_{\mathrm {objective} }}$

G

p
i
x
e
l

1000

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
five
e

{\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\geq G_{\mathrm {objective} }}

, therefore

${\displaystyle {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}\geq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}$

westward

p
h
o
t
o
r
eastward
c
e
p
t
o
r

(
f

/

#

)

yard
i
c
r
o
l
e
n
southward

westward

p
i
10
e
l

(
f

/

#

)

o
b
j
eastward
c
t
i
v
e

{\displaystyle {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}\geq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}

If

due westphotoreceptor

/
wpixel

=
ff
, the linear fill up cistron of the lens, then the status becomes

${\displaystyle {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }\leq {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }\times {\mathit {ff}}}$

(
f

/

#

)

thousand
i
c
r
o
50
e
n
s

(
f

/

#

)

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
five
eastward

×

f
f

{\displaystyle {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }\leq {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }\times {\mathit {ff}}}

Thus if shading is to be avoided the f-number of the microlens must be smaller than the f-number of the taking lens by at least a factor equal to the linear fill factor of the pixel. The f-number of the microlens is determined ultimately past the width of the pixel and its height in a higher place the silicon, which determines its focal length. In turn, this is determined past the tiptop of the metallisation layers, besides known as the ‘stack height’. For a given stack height, the f-number of the microlenses will increase as pixel size reduces, and thus the objective lens f-number at which shading occurs will tend to increase. This effect has been observed in do, equally recorded in the DxOmark article ‘F-finish blues’[15]

In gild to maintain pixel counts smaller sensors will tend to have smaller pixels, while at the aforementioned time smaller objective lens f-numbers are required to maximise the amount of light projected on the sensor. To combat the consequence discussed above, smaller format pixels include engineering science design features to let the reduction in f-number of their microlenses. These may include simplified pixel designs which require less metallisation, ‘light pipes’ congenital within the pixel to bring its credible surface closer to the microlens and ‘dorsum side illumination’ in which the wafer is thinned to expose the rear of the photodetectors and the microlens layer is placed directly on that surface, rather than the front side with its wiring layers. The relative effectiveness of these stratagems is discussed past Aptina in some detail.[xvi]

Common prototype sensor formats

Sizes of sensors used in almost current digital cameras relative to a standard 35 mm frame.

For interchangeable-lens cameras

Some professional DSLRs, SLTs and mirrorless cameras utilise
total-frame
sensors, equivalent to the size of a frame of 35 mm picture.

Virtually consumer-level DSLRs, SLTs and mirrorless cameras use relatively big sensors, either somewhat under the size of a frame of APS-C motion-picture show, with a crop factor of 1.5–i.6; or 30% smaller than that, with a crop factor of 2.0 (this is the Four Thirds Organisation, adopted by Olympus and Panasonic).

As of November 2013[update]
there is merely one mirrorless model equipped with a very small sensor, more than typical of compact cameras: the Pentax Q7, with a 1/1.7″ sensor (4.55 crop gene). See Sensors equipping Compact digital cameras and photographic camera-phones section below.

Many different terms are used in marketing to draw DSLR/SLT/mirrorless sensor formats, including the following:

• 860 mm² area Full-frame digital SLR format, with sensor dimensions nigh equal to those of 35 mm film (36×24 mm) from Pentax, Panasonic, Leica, Nikon, Canon, Sony and appear in 2018 by Sigma equally upcoming.
• 548 mm² expanse APS-H format for the high-end mirrorless SD Quattro H from Sigma (crop factor i.35)
• 370 mm² area APS-C standard format from Nikon, Pentax, Sony, Fujifilm, Sigma (crop factor one.5) (Actual APS-C flick is bigger, nonetheless.)
• 330 mm² area APS-C smaller format from Canon (crop cistron 1.half dozen)
• 225 mm² area Micro Four Thirds System format from Panasonic, Olympus, Black Magic and Polaroid (crop gene two.0)
• 43 mm² surface area 1/1.7″ Pentax Q7 (4.55 crop factor)

Obsolescent and out-of-production sensor sizes include:

• 548 mm² area Leica’s M8 and M8.2 sensor (crop factor one.33).
Current M-series sensors are effectively full-frame (ingather cistron ane.0).
• 548 mm² area Canon’s APS-H format for high-speed pro-level DSLRs (crop factor 1.iii).
Current 1D/5D-serial sensors are finer full-frame (crop factor one.0).
• 370 mm² area APS-C crop factor 1.5 format from Epson, Samsung NX, Konica Minolta.
• 286 mm² area Foveon X3 format used in Sigma SD-series DSLRs and DP-series mirrorless (crop cistron 1.7).
Later models such as the SD1, DP2 Merrill and virtually of the Quattro series use a ingather gene 1.5 Foveon sensor; the fifty-fifty more recent Quattro H mirrorless uses an APS-H Foveon sensor with a i.35 crop factor.
• 225 mm² expanse Four Thirds System format from Olympus (crop factor two.0)
• 116 mm² area 1″ Nikon CX format used in Nikon 1 serial[17]
and Samsung mini-NX series (crop cistron two.7)
• 30 mm² area 1/2.3″ original Pentax Q (5.6 crop factor).
Current Q-series cameras have a ingather factor of 4.55.

When full-frame sensors were starting time introduced, production costs could exceed twenty times the toll of an APS-C sensor. Only twenty full-frame sensors can be produced on an 8 inches (20 cm) silicon wafer, which would fit 100 or more APS-C sensors, and there is a significant reduction in yield due to the large area for contaminants per component. Additionally, full frame sensor fabrication originally required iii split exposures during the photolithography stage, which requires separate masks and quality command steps. Canon selected the intermediate APS-H size, since it was at the time the largest that could exist patterned with a single mask, helping to control production costs and manage yields.[18]
Newer photolithography equipment now allows single-pass exposures for full-frame sensors, although other size-related production constraints remain much the same.

Due to the ever-changing constraints of semiconductor fabrication and processing, and considering photographic camera manufacturers frequently source sensors from tertiary-party foundries, it is common for sensor dimensions to vary slightly within the same nominal format. For example, the Nikon D3 and D700 cameras’ nominally full-frame sensors actually mensurate 36 × 23.nine mm, slightly smaller than a 36 × 24 mm frame of 35 mm film. As some other instance, the Pentax K200D’s sensor (fabricated by Sony) measures 23.five × 15.7 mm, while the contemporaneous K20D’s sensor (made by Samsung) measures 23.4 × xv.vi mm.

Well-nigh of these image sensor formats judge the 3:2 aspect ratio of 35 mm motion-picture show. Over again, the Iv Thirds Arrangement is a notable exception, with an aspect ratio of 4:iii every bit seen in nigh compact digital cameras (come across beneath).

Smaller sensors

Most sensors are made for photographic camera phones, compact digital cameras, and bridge cameras. Nigh image sensors equipping compact cameras accept an attribute ratio of iv:3. This matches the aspect ratio of the pop SVGA, XGA, and SXGA brandish resolutions at the fourth dimension of the first digital cameras, allowing images to be displayed on usual monitors without cropping.

Every bit of December 2010[update]
most compact digital cameras used small i/2.three” sensors. Such cameras include Canon Powershot SX230 IS, Fuji Finepix Z90 and Nikon Coolpix S9100. Some older digital cameras (mostly from 2005–2010) used even smaller 1/two.5″ sensors: these include Panasonic Lumix DMC-FS62, Canon Powershot SX120 IS, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-S700, and Casio Exilim EX-Z80.

As of 2018 high-end compact cameras using one inch sensors that take almost iv times the area of those equipping mutual compacts include Canon PowerShot G-series (G3 X to G9 X), Sony DSC RX100 serial, Panasonic Lumix TZ100 and Panasonic DMC-LX15. Catechism has APS-C sensor on its top model PowerShot G1 X Mark Iii.

For many years until Sep. 2011 a gap existed between compact digital and DSLR camera sensor sizes. The 10 axis is a detached ready of sensor format sizes used in digital cameras, non a linear measurement centrality.

Finally, Sony has the DSC-RX1 and DSC-RX1R cameras in their lineup, which have a full-frame sensor usually only used in professional person DSLRs, SLTs and MILCs.

Due to the size constraints of powerful zoom objectives, almost current bridge cameras accept 1/2.three” sensors, as modest as those used in common more compact cameras. Every bit lens sizes are proportional to the prototype sensor size, smaller sensors enable big zoom amounts with moderate size lenses. In 2011 the high-finish Fujifilm X-S1 was equipped with a much larger 2/3″ sensor. In 2013–2014, both Sony (Cyber-shot DSC-RX10) and Panasonic (Lumix DMC-FZ1000) produced span cameras with 1″ sensors.

The sensors of camera phones are typically much smaller than those of typical compact cameras, assuasive greater miniaturization of the electrical and optical components. Sensor sizes of around 1/6″ are mutual in photographic camera phones, webcams and digital camcorders. The Nokia N8’s i/1.83″ sensor was the largest in a telephone in late 2011. The Nokia 808 surpasses meaty cameras with its 41 million pixels, 1/1.2″ sensor.[19]

Medium-format digital sensors

The largest digital sensors in commercially available cameras are described as
medium format, in reference to film formats of similar dimensions. Although the traditional medium format 120 moving picture commonly had one side with 6 cm length (the other varying from 4.v to 24 cm), the virtually common digital sensor sizes described beneath are approximately 48 mm × 36 mm (1.9 in × 1.4 in), which is roughly twice the size of a Full-frame digital SLR sensor format.

Available CCD sensors include Phase One’s P65+ digital back with Dalsa’southward 53.nine mm × 40.4 mm (ii.12 in × 1.59 in) sensor containing 60.5 megapixels[20]
and Leica’south “S-Organization” DSLR with a 45 mm × 30 mm (1.8 in × i.ii in) sensor containing 37-megapixels.[21]
In 2010, Pentax released the 40MP 645D medium format DSLR with a 44 mm × 33 mm (1.7 in × one.iii in) CCD sensor;[22]
afterwards models of the 645 series kept the same sensor size but replaced the CCD with a CMOS sensor. In 2016, Hasselblad announced the X1D, a 50MP medium-format mirrorless camera, with a 44 mm × 33 mm (1.vii in × 1.3 in) CMOS sensor.[23]
In late 2016, Fujifilm also announced its new Fujifilm GFX 50S medium format, mirrorless entry into the market, with a 43.viii mm × 32.9 mm (1.72 in × 1.30 in) CMOS sensor and 51.4MP.
[24]
[25]

Table of sensor formats and sizes

Sensor sizes are expressed in inches notation because at the time of the popularization of digital image sensors they were used to replace video camera tubes. The common i” outside diameter round video camera tubes take a rectangular photo sensitive area near 16 mm on the diagonal, so a digital sensor with a sixteen mm diagonal size is a 1″ video tube equivalent. The proper name of a one” digital sensor should more accurately be read every bit “one inch video camera tube equivalent” sensor. Current digital epitome sensor size descriptors are the video photographic camera tube equivalency size, not the actual size of the sensor. For instance, a 1″ sensor has a diagonal measurement of sixteen mm.[26]
[27]

Sizes are often expressed as a fraction of an inch, with a one in the numerator, and a decimal number in the denominator. For example, 1/two.5 converts to 2/5 every bit a uncomplicated fraction, or 0.iv as a decimal number. This “inch” system gives a result approximately i.5 times the length of the diagonal of the sensor. This “optical format” measure goes back to the way image sizes of video cameras used until the late 1980s were expressed, referring to the outside diameter of the drinking glass envelope of the video camera tube. David Pogue of
The New York Times
states that “the actual sensor size is much smaller than what the camera companies publish – almost one-third smaller.” For example, a photographic camera advertising a 1/ii.seven” sensor does not accept a sensor with a diagonal of 0.37″; instead, the diagonal is closer to 0.26″.[28]
[29]
[30]
Instead of “formats”, these sensor sizes are frequently called
types, every bit in “1/2-inch-type CCD.”

Due to inch-based sensor formats non being standardized, their exact dimensions may vary, but those listed are typical.[29]
The listed sensor areas span more than a factor of m and are proportional to the maximum possible collection of light and image resolution (same lens speed, i.e., minimum F-number), but in do are not directly proportional to epitome noise or resolution due to other limitations. See comparisons.[31]
[32]
Movie format sizes are also included, for comparing. The application examples of phone or camera may non show the exact sensor sizes.

Type Diagonal (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Attribute Ratio Area (mm²) Stops (expanse)[33] Crop cistron[34]
1/10″ 1.60 1.28 0.96 iv:3 1.23 -9.46 27.04
1/8″ ii.00 1.60 i.20 4:3 one.92 -8.81 21.65
1/six” (Panasonic SDR-H20, SDR-H200) 3.00 two.forty 1.80 4:3 iv.32 -seven.64 14.xiv
1/iv”[35] four.50 3.60 2.70 4:3 9.72 -6.47 10.81
1/3.6″ (Nokia Lumia 720)[36] 5.00 4.00 three.00 4:3 12.0 -half dozen.17 eight.65
ane/three.2″ (iPhone five)[37] v.68 4.54 three.42 4:3 xv.50 -five.80 7.61
one/3.09″ Sony EXMOR IMX351[38] 5.82 iv.66 three.five 4:3 sixteen.3 -5.73 7.43
Standard viii mm moving picture frame 5.94 4.8 3.5 11:8 16.eight -5.68 seven.28
i/3″ (iPhone 5S, iPhone half-dozen, LG G3[39]) six.00 4.lxxx 3.60 4:3 17.thirty -5.64 7.21
1/2.ix” Sony EXMOR IMX322[40] vi.23 4.98 3.74 4:3 xviii.63 -5.54 6.92
1/2.seven” Fujifilm 2800 Zoom vi.72 five.37 4.04 iv:three 21.lxx -5.32 6.44
Super 8 mm film

frame
7.04 v.79 4.01 thirteen:9 23.22 -5.22 6.xv
1/2.v” (Nokia Lumia 1520, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T5, iPhone XS[41]) 7.18 5.76 4.29 four:3 24.lxx -5.13 half-dozen.02
one/2.3″ (Pentax Q, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W330, GoPro HERO3, Panasonic HX-A500, Google Pixel/Pixel+, DJI Phantom 3[42]/Mavic 2 Zoom[43]), Nikon P1000/P900 seven.66 6.17 4.55 4:3 28.50 -4.94 5.64
1/two.three” Sony Exmor IMX220[44] 7.87 6.30 4.72 four:3 29.73 -4.86 five.49
1/ii” (Fujifilm HS30EXR, Xiaomi Mi 9, OnePlus 7, Espros EPC 660, DJI Mavic Air 2) 8.00 half-dozen.40 iv.80 iv:3 30.70 -iv.81 5.41
1/one.8″ (Nokia N8) (Olympus C-5050, C-5060, C-7070) eight.93 7.xviii 5.32 iv:3 38.twenty -4.50 4.84
1/i.7″ (Pentax Q7, Canon G10, G15, Huawei P20 Pro, Huawei P30 Pro, Huawei Mate 20 Pro) nine.50 7.sixty 5.lxx 4:3 43.xxx -4.32 iv.55
1/1.6″ (Fujifilm f200exr [1]) x.07 8.08 6.01 4:three 48.56 -4.15 4.30
2/iii” (Nokia Lumia 1020, Fujifilm X10, X20, XF1) 11.00 8.eighty 6.sixty 4:3 58.10 -3.89 3.93
i/1.33″ (Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra)[45] 12 9.six vii.ii 4:3 69.12 -3.64 3.58
Standard 16 mm flick frame 12.lxx 10.26 7.49 11:viii 76.85 -3.49 3.41
i/1.ii” (Nokia 808 PureView) 13.33 ten.67 8.00 iv:three 85.33 -iii.34 3.24
ane/1.12″ (Xiaomi Mi 11 Ultra) 14.29 11.43 viii.57 4:3 97.96 ??? three.03
Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera & Blackmagic Studio Photographic camera fourteen.32 12.48 7.02 16:ix 87.6 -3.30 3.02
Super 16 mm motion-picture show frame 14.54 12.52 7.41 5:3 92.80 -3.22 2.97
1″ (Nikon CX, Sony RX100, Sony RX10, Sony ZV1, Samsung NX Mini) 15.86 thirteen.xx 8.80 3:2 116 -ii.89 2.72
ane” Digital Bolex d16 16.00 12.80 ix.lx 4:iii 123 -2.81 2.seventy
ane.1″ Sony IMX253[46] 17.46 14.10 10.xxx 11:8 145 -ii.57 2.47
Blackmagic Movie house Camera EF 18.13 fifteen.81 8.88 16:nine 140 -2.62 ii.38
Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera 4K 21.44 18.96 10 19:ten 190 -2.19 ii.01
Iv Thirds, Micro Four Thirds (“4/3”, “m4/3”) 21.60 17.30 13 4:3 225 -i.94 2.00
Blackmagic Product Camera/URSA/URSA Mini 4K 24.23 21.12 eleven.88 16:9 251 -ane.78 ane.79
1.5″ Catechism PowerShot G1 10 Mark Ii 23.36 18.lxx fourteen 4:3 262 -ane.72 1.85
“35mm” ii Perf Techniscope 23.85 21.95 nine.35 7:3 205.23 -2.07 one.81
original Sigma Foveon X3 24.90 twenty.lxx 13.eighty 3:ii 286 -ane.60 1.74
RED DRAGON iv.5K (RAVEN) 25.fifty 23.00 x.lxxx 19:9 248.four -1.80 1.66
“Super 35mm” 2 Perf 26.58 24.89 9.35 8:3 232.7 -1.89 one.62
Catechism EF-S, APS-C 26.82 22.30 14.90 iii:2 332 -1.38 1.61
Standard 35 mm moving picture frame (pic) 27.twenty 22.0 16.0 11:8 352 -one.thirty 1.59
Blackmagic URSA Mini/Pro iv.6K 29 25.34 14.25 16:9 361 -ane.26 1.49
APS-C (Sony α, Sony E, Nikon DX, Pentax 1000, Samsung NX, Fuji X) 28.ii–28.4 23.vi–23.vii 15.threescore iii:ii 368–370 -1.23 to -i.22 1.52–1.54
Super 35 mm film 3 perf 28.48 24.89 13.86 9:5 344.97 -one.32 1.51
RED DRAGON 5K S35 28.ix 25.half dozen 13.v 17:nine 345.6 -1.32 i.49
Super 35mm movie 4 perf 31.11 24.89 xviii.66 4:3 464 -0.90 1.39
Canon APS-H 33.l 27.90 18.lx 3:2 519 -0.74 1.29
ARRI ALEV Three (ALEXA SXT, ALEXA MINI, AMIRA), Ruby HELIUM 8K S35 33.lxxx 29.90 15.77 17:9 471.52 -0.87 ane.28
Cerise DRAGON 6K S35 34.fifty 30.7 15.viii 35:eighteen 485.06 -0.83 i.25
35 mm picture full-frame, (Canon EF, Nikon FX, Pentax Chiliad-1, Sony α, Sony FE, Leica M) 43.i–43.3 35.8–36 23.ix–24 3:2 856–864 0 one.0
ARRI ALEXA LF 44.71 36.70 25.54 13:ix 937.32 +0.12 0.96
RED MONSTRO 8K VV, Panavision Millenium DXL2 46.31 40.96 21.60 17:ix 884.74 +0.03 0.93
Leica S 54 45 30 3:two 1350 +0.64 0.80

[47]
[48]

55 43.8 32.9 4:iii 1452 +0.75 0.78
Standard 65/70 mm

film frame
57.30 52.48 23.01 7:iii 1208 +0.48 0.76
ARRI ALEXA 65 59.86 54.12 25.58 xix:9 1384.39 +0.68 0.72
Kodak KAF 39000 CCD[49] 61.xxx 49 36.80 4:3 1803 +ane.06 0.71
Leaf AFi 10 66.57 56 36 14:9 2016 +1.22 0.65
Medium-format (Hasselblad H5D-60c, Hasselblad H6D-100c)[50] 67.08 53.seven forty.two iv:3 2159 +1.32 0.65
Phase I P 65+, IQ160, IQ180 67.40 53.90 40.40 four:three 2178 +one.33 0.64
Medium-format 6×four.v cm (also chosen
645 format)
lxx 42 56 3:4 2352 +1.44 0.614
Medium-format six×6 cm 79 56 56 1:1 3136 +one.86 0.538
IMAX

film frame
87.91 lxx.41 52.63 iv:iii 3706 +2.10 0.49
Medium-format six×7 cm 89.half-dozen 70 56 5:four 3920 +two.xviii 0.469
Medium-format six×eight cm 94.four 76 56 3:4 4256 +two.30 0.458
Medium-format 6×9 cm 101 84 56 three:2 4704 +ii.44 0.43
Big-format flick 4×5 inch 150 121 97 5:4 11737 +3.76 0.29
Large-format film 5×7 inch 210 178 127 7:5 22606 +iv.71 0.238
Large-format moving picture 8×10 inch 300 254 203 5:4 51562 +v.ninety 0.143

Encounter also

• Full-frame digital SLR
• Sensor size and angle of view
• 35 mm equivalent focal length
• Film format
• Digital versus film photography
• List of large sensor interchangeable-lens video cameras
• List of sensors used in digital cameras
• Angle of view
• Crop factor
• Field of view

Notes and references

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a

b

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2013
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2011
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{{cite periodical}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

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14. ^

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22. ^

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24. ^

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25. ^

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28. ^

Pogue, David (2010-12-22). “Small Cameras With Big Sensors, and How to Compare Them”.
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29. ^

a

b

Bockaert, Vincent. “Sensor Sizes: Camera System: Glossary: Learn”. Digital Photography Review. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved
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30. ^

“Making (Some) sense out of sensor sizes”.

31. ^

Camera Sensor Ratings DxOMark

32. ^

Imaging-resources: Sample images Comparometer Imaging-resource

33. ^

Defined here as the equivalent number of stops lost (or gained, if positive) due to the expanse of the sensor relative to a full 35 frame (36×24mm). Computed as

${\displaystyle Stops=\log _{2}\left({\frac {Area_{sensor}}{Area_{35mm}}}\right)}$

S
t
o
p
s
=

log

2

(

A
r
e

a

s
e
northward
s
o
r

A
r
due east

a

35
g
yard

)

{\displaystyle Stops=\log _{2}\left({\frac {Area_{sensor}}{Area_{35mm}}}\right)}

34. ^

Defined here as the ratio of the diagonal of a full 35 frame to that of the sensor format, that is

${\displaystyle CF={\frac {diag_{35mm}}{diag_{sensor}}}}$

C
F
=

d
i
a

m

35
grand
k

d
i
a

g

south
e
n
s
o
r

{\displaystyle CF={\frac {diag_{35mm}}{diag_{sensor}}}}

.

35. ^

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world wide web.photoreview.com.au
. Retrieved
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Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_sensor_format