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Agenda used in aboriginal Egypt earlier 22 BC

The aboriginal
Egyptian calendar
– a civil agenda – was a solar calendar with a 365-day year. The year consisted of three seasons of 120 days each, plus an intercalary month of five epagomenal days treated as outside of the year proper. Each season was divided into four months of 30 days. These twelve months were initially numbered inside each flavour merely came to too be known past the names of their principal festivals. Each month was divided into 3 x-day periods known as decans or decades. It has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty and the Twentieth Dynasty the concluding two days of each decan were normally treated as a kind of weekend for the royal craftsmen, with imperial artisans gratis from piece of work.[2]

Because this calendrical year was about a quarter of a mean solar day shorter than the solar year, the Egyptian calendar lost virtually ane day every four years relative to the Gregorian calendar. Information technology is therefore sometimes referred to as the
wandering twelvemonth
(Latin:
annus vagus), as its months rotated virtually ane solar day through the solar year every four years.
Ptolemy Iii‘s Canopus Decree attempted to correct this through the introduction of a sixth epagomenal day every iv years but the proposal was resisted by the Egyptian priests and people and abandoned until the establishment of the Alexandrian or Coptic agenda by Augustus. The introduction of a bound day to the Egyptian calendar made information technology equivalent to the reformed Julian calendar, although past extension information technology continues to diverge from the Gregorian calendar at the turn of most centuries.

This
civil calendar
ran concurrently with an
Egyptian lunar agenda
which was used for some religious rituals and festivals. Some Egyptologists have described it as lunisolar, with an intercalary month supposedly added every 2 or three years to maintain its consistency with the solar year, just no evidence of such intercalation earlier the
4th century BC
has yet been discovered.

History

[edit]

Prehistory

[edit]

Setting a agenda by the Nile flood would be about every bit vague a business as if we set our calendar by the return of the Bound violets.

—H.East. Winlock[3]

The Nile inundation at Cairo
c.
 1830.

Current understanding of the earliest development of the Egyptian calendar remains speculative. A tablet from the reign of the First Dynasty pharaoh Djer (c.
 3000
BC) was in one case thought to indicate that the Egyptians had already established a link between the heliacal rising of Sirius (Ancient Egyptian:
Spdt
or
Sopdet, “Triangle”; Greek:

Σῶθις
,
Sôthis) and the kickoff of their year, but more contempo analysis has questioned whether the tablet’s pic refers to Sirius at all.[4]
Similarly, based on the Palermo Rock, Alexander Scharff proposed that the Old Kingdom observed a 320-solar day twelvemonth, just his theory has not been widely accepted.[5]
Some bear witness suggests the early civil calendar had 360 days,[6]
although it might merely reflect the unusual status of the 5 epagomenal days equally days “added on” to the proper year.

With its interior effectively rainless for thousands of years,[7]
aboriginal Arab republic of egypt was “a gift of the river” Nile,[viii]
whose annual flooding organized the natural yr into three broad natural seasons known to the Egyptians as:[9]
[10]
[11]

  1. Inundation or Flood (Ancient Egyptian:
    Ꜣḫt, sometimes anglicized as
    Akhet): roughly from September to January.
  2. Emergence or Winter (

    Prt

    , sometimes anglicized as
    Peret): roughly from Jan to May.
  3. Low H2o or Harvest or Summertime (

    Šmw

    , sometimes anglicized as
    Shemu): roughly from May to September.[nine]

Equally early equally the reign of Djer (c.
 3000
BC, Dynasty I), yearly records were being kept of the flood’s loftier-water mark.[12]
Otto East. Neugebauer noted that a 365-day year can be established by averaging a few decades of accurate observations of the Nile flood without whatsoever need for astronomical observations,[13]
although the corking irregularity of the flood from year to yr[a]
and the difficulty of maintaining a sufficiently accurate Nilometer and record in prehistoric Egypt has acquired other scholars to doubtfulness that information technology formed the footing for the Egyptian agenda.[three]
[half dozen]
[xv]

Annotation that the names of the 3 natural seasons were incorporated into the Civil agenda year (see below), merely as this calendar yr is a
wandering year, the seasons of this calendar slowly rotate through the natural solar twelvemonth, meaning that Civil season Akhet/Inundation only occasionally coincided with the Nile flood.

Lunar calendar

[edit]

A modern lunar calendar for 2017

The Egyptians appear to have used a purely lunar agenda prior to the institution of the solar ceremonious agenda[16]
[17]
in which each month began on the morning time when the waning crescent moon could no longer be seen.[xv]
Until the closing of Arab republic of egypt’s polytheist temples under the Byzantines, the lunar calendar continued to exist used as the liturgical year of various cults.[17]
The lunar calendar divided the month into four weeks, reflecting each quarter of the lunar phases.[eighteen]
Because the exact fourth dimension of morning considered to begin the Egyptian day remains uncertain[xix]
and there is no evidence that any method other than observation was used to determine the beginnings of the lunar months prior to the
quaternary century BC,[20]

there is no sure fashion to reconstruct exact dates in the lunar calendar from its known dates.[19]
The difference between start the day at the beginning light of dawn or at sunrise accounts for an eleven–14 year shift in dated observations of the lunar bike.[21]
It remains unknown how the Egyptians dealt with obscurement by clouds when they occurred and the best electric current algorithms take been shown to differ from actual observation of the waning crescent moon in about one-in-five cases.[xix]

Parker and others have argued for its development into an observational and so calculated lunisolar agenda[22]
which used a 30 24-hour interval intercalary month every 2 to three years to accommodate the lunar yr’s loss of most eleven days a year relative to the solar year and to maintain the placement of the heliacal rising of Sirius within its twelfth month.[16]
No evidence for such a calendar month, nonetheless, exists in the nowadays historical record.[23]

Temple Month


Ꜣbd n ḥwt-nṯr
[24]
Egyptian hieroglyphs

A second lunar calendar is attested by a demotic astronomical papyrus[25]
dating to sometime later on 144 Advertizing which outlines a lunisolar agenda operating in accordance with the Egyptian civil agenda according to a 25 year cycle.[26]
The agenda seems to bear witness its calendar month starting time with the first visibility of the waxing crescent moon, but Parker displayed an error in the bicycle of about a mean solar day in 500 years,[27]
using it to show the cycle was developed to correspond with the new moon around 357BC.[28]
This date places information technology prior to the Ptolemaic period and inside the native Egyptian Dynasty Xxx. Egypt’s 1st Persian occupation, however, seems probable to have been its inspiration.[29]
This lunisolar calendar’s calculations apparently continued to be used without correction into the Roman period, fifty-fifty when they no longer precisely matched the appreciable lunar phases.[30]

The days of the lunar calendar month — known to the Egyptians as a “temple month”[24]
— were individually named and celebrated every bit stages in the life of the moon god, variously Thoth in the Middle Kingdom or Khonsu in the Ptolemaic era: “He … is conceived … on
Psḏntyw; he is born on
Ꜣbd; he grows old after
Smdt“.[31]

Days of the lunar calendar month
[31]
[b]
Mean solar day Name
Egyptian Significant (if known)
1

N10 G4 W3


[c]

Psḏtyw
[d]
Literal meaning unknown but possibly related to the Ennead; the day of the New Moon.
two
[east]
Tp Ꜣbd

Ꜣbd
“Beginning the Month” or “The Month”; the beginning of the Crescent Moon.
3 Mspr “Arrival”
4 Prt Sm “The Going Forth of the
Sm“, a kind of priest
5

Aa1

X1
D2

Z1
R2 W3

I͗ḫt Ḥr Ḫꜣwt “Offerings upon the Chantry”
half dozen

S29 T22 N35

X1
Z2

Z2
W3


[f]

Snt “The Sixth”
7
[g]
Dnı͗t “Partial”; the first-quarter 24-hour interval.
viii Tp Unknown
ix
[h]
Kꜣp Unknown
10 Sı͗f Unknown
11 Stt Unknown
12

N31

D53
N31

D53
W3

Unknown “Partial” the second-quarter day.
13

D12 D12 U1 A59 W3


[i]

Mꜣꜣ Sṯy Unknown
xiv

S32 G1 Z7 W3

Sı͗ꜣw Unknown
15

D1 N13


[j]

Smdt

Tp Smdt
Literal significant uncertain; the twenty-four hours of the Full Moon.
sixteen

F31 Q3

D21
Z1
Z1

W24
W3

Mspr Sn Nw

Ḥbs Tp
[49]
“Second Inflow”
“Covering the Head”
17

S32 G1 Z7 W3

Sı͗ꜣw Second Quarter 24-hour interval
18

M17 V28 N12 W3


[k]

I͗ꜥḥ “Mean solar day of the Moon”
19 Sḏm Mdwf Unknown
20 Stp Unknown
21
[50]
Ꜥprw Unknown
22 Pḥ Spdt Unknown
23

D46

N35
M17 X1

V11
W3

Dnı͗t “Partial”; the 3rd-quarter day.
24
[1000]
Knḥw Unknown
25 Stt Unknown
26

O1

D21
X1

W3

Prt “The Going Forth”
27

G43 N37 D58 W3


[due north]

Wšb Unknown
28 Ḥb Sd Nwt “The Jubilee of Nut”
29

P6 A47 W3

Ꜥḥꜥ Unknown
30

O1

D21
X1

D54
O34

R12

X1
Z4
W3


[o]

Prt Mn “The Going Forth of Min”

Ceremonious calendar

[edit]

The civil agenda was established at some early date in or before the Old Kingdom, with probable evidence of its utilise early in the reign of Shepseskaf (c.
 2510
BC, Dynasty IV) and certain testament during the reign of Neferirkare (mid-25th centuryBC, Dynasty Five).[54]
It was probably based upon astronomical observations of Sirius[15]
whose reappearance in the heaven closely corresponded to the average onset of the Nile flood through the 5th and
4th millennium BC.[14]

[p]
A recent development is the discovery that the xxx-day month of the Mesopotamian calendar dates as late equally the Jemdet Nasr Flow (late 4th-millenniumBC),[56]
a time Egyptian culture was borrowing various objects and cultural features from the Fertile Crescent, leaving open the possibility that the main features of the agenda were borrowed in one direction or the other too.[57]

The civil twelvemonth comprised exactly 365 days,[q]
divided into 12 months of xxx days each and an intercalary month of five days,[59]
were celebrated as the birthdays of the gods Osiris, Horus, Set, Isis, and Nephthys.[60]
The regular months were grouped into Egypt’due south three seasons,[59]
which gave them their original names,[61]
and divided into 3 x-day periods known as decans or decades. In later sources, these were distinguished every bit “first”, “middle”, and “last”.[62]
Information technology has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty and the Twentieth Dynasty the concluding two days of each decan were commonly treated as a kind of weekend for the imperial craftsmen, with royal artisans free from work.[63]
Dates were typically expressed in a YMD format, with a pharaoh’south regnal year followed by the calendar month followed by the day of the calendar month.[64]
For example, the New Year occurred on
I Akhet ane.

Lord of Years

Nb Rnpt
Egyptian hieroglyphs

The importance of the calendar to Egyptian faith is reflected in the employ of the title “Lord of Years” (

Nb Rnpt

)[65]
for its various creator gods.[66]
Time was too considered an integral attribute of Maat,[66]
the cosmic guild which opposed chaos, lies, and violence.

The ceremonious agenda was plainly established in a yr when Sirius rose on its New Twelvemonth
(I Akhet 1)
but, because of its lack of leap years, it began to slowly wheel backwards through the solar twelvemonth. Sirius itself, about twoscore° beneath the ecliptic, follows a Sothic yr almost exactly matching that of the Sun, with its reappearance now occurring at the latitude of Cairo (ancient Heliopolis and Memphis) on 19July (Julian), just two or three days later than its occurrence in early on antiquity.[59]
[67]

Following Censorinus[68]
and Meyer,[69]
the standard agreement was that, 4 years from the calendar’s inception, Sirius would accept no longer reappeared on the Egyptian New year but on the next twenty-four hour period
(I Akhet 2); four years after, it would accept reappeared on the day subsequently that; and and then on through the entire calendar until its rise finally returned to
I Akhet 1
1460 years later the agenda’s inception,[68]
[r]
an outcome known as “apocatastasis”.[70]
Owing to the event’s extreme regularity, Egyptian recordings of the calendrical engagement of the rise of Sirius accept been used by Egyptologists to fix its agenda and other events dated to information technology, at least to the level of the four-Egyptian-year periods which share the same appointment for Sirius’s return, known as “tetraëterides” or “quadrennia”.[70]
For instance, an account that Sothis rose on
III Peret ane—the 181st twenty-four hours of the year—should show that somewhere 720, 721, 722, or 723 years take passed since the terminal apocatastasis.[68]
Following such a scheme, the record of Sirius rise on
Ii Shemu 1
in 239BC implies apocatastases on 1319 and 2779BC ±three years.[21]
[s]
Censorinus’s placement of an apocatastasis on 21July AD139[t]
permitted the calculation of its predecessors to 1322, 2782, and 4242BC.[72]
[
failed verification
]

The final is sometimes described as “the commencement exactly dated year in history”[73]
merely, since the calendar is attested earlier Dynasty XVIII and the last date is now known to far predate early on Egyptian civilization, it is typically credited to Dynasty Two around the centre engagement.[74]
[u]

Heliacal rise of Sirius at Heliopolis
[v]
Year Date
Egyptian[77] Julian[78] Gregorian[79]
3500BC III Peret 3 July 16 June 18
3000BC III Shemu 8 July sixteen June 22
2500BC III Akhet 8 July sixteen June 26
2000BC 3 Peret 14 July 17 June 30
1500BC III Shemu 19 July 17 July 4
1000BC Iii Akhet xix July 17 July 8
  500BC 3 Peret 25 July eighteen July 13
ADi Three Shemu 30 July 18 July sixteen
Advertizing500 IV Akhet 2 July xx July 22

The archetype agreement of the Sothic cycle relies, however, on several potentially erroneous assumptions. Post-obit Scaliger,[lxxx]
Censorinus’south appointment is usually emended to xxJuly[west]
but ancient authorities requite a diverseness of ‘fixed’ dates for the rise of Sirius.[10]
His use of the year 139 seems questionable,[83]
equally 136 seems to have been the beginning of the tetraëteris[84]
and the later date chosen to flatter the birthday of Censorinus’s patron.[85]
Perfect ascertainment of Sirius’south actual behavior during the cycle—including its minor shift relative to the solar twelvemonth—would produce a period of 1457 years; observational difficulties produce a further margin of fault of about two decades.[72]
Although it is sure the Egyptian day began in the forenoon, some other iv years are shifted depending on whether the precise start occurred at the commencement calorie-free of dawn or at sunrise.[21]
Information technology has been noted that there is no recognition in surviving records that Sirius’s minor irregularities sometimes produce a triëteris or penteteris (three- or five-twelvemonth periods of understanding with an Egyptian date) rather than the usual four-year periods and, given that the expected discrepancy is no more than than eight years in 1460, the cycle may accept been applied schematically[70]
[86]
co-ordinate to the civil years by Egyptians and the Julian year by the Greeks and Romans.[68]
The occurrence of the apocatastasis in the
2nd millennium BC
so close to the swell political and sun-based religious reforms of
Amenhotep 4/Akhenaton also leaves open the possibility that the bicycle’southward strict awarding was occasionally field of study to political interference.[87]
The record and commemoration of Sirius’s rise would also vary by several days (equating to decades of the wheel) in eras when the official site of ascertainment was moved from near Cairo.[y]
The return of Sirius to the night heaven varies by about a day per degree of latitude, causing it to be seen 8–ten days before at Aswan than at Alexandria,[89]
a difference which causes Rolf Krauss to propose dating much of Egyptian history decades later than the nowadays consensus.

Ptolemaic calendar

[edit]

Following Alexander the Neat’s conquest of the Farsi Empire, the Macedonian Ptolemaic Dynasty came to power in Egypt, continuing to employ its native calendars with Hellenized names. In 238 BC, Ptolemy Iii’s Canopus Prescript ordered that every 4th year should incorporate a sixth twenty-four hours in its intercalary month,[ninety]
honoring him and his wife as gods equivalent to the children of Nut. The reform was resisted past the Egyptian priests and people and was abandoned.

Coptic calendar

[edit]

Egyptian scholars were involved with the establishment of Julius Caesar’s reform of the Roman agenda, although the Roman priests initially misapplied its formula and—by counting inclusively—added bound days every three years instead of every four. The mistake was corrected by Augustus through omitting leap years for a number of cycles until AD4. As the personal ruler of Arab republic of egypt, he too imposed a reform of its agenda in 26 or 25BC, possibly to represent with the offset of a new Callipic cycle, with the first spring day occurring on six Epag. in the year 22BC. This “Alexandrian agenda” corresponds virtually exactly to the Julian, causing 1Thoth to remain at 29Baronial except during the twelvemonth before a Julian leap year, when it occurs on 30August instead. The calendars then resume their correspondence after fourPhamenoth/ 29February of the next twelvemonth.[91]

Months

[edit]

For much of Egyptian history, the months were not referred to by individual names, but were rather numbered within the three seasons.[61]
As early as the Eye Kingdom, however, each month had its own name. These finally evolved into the New Kingdom months, which in turn gave rise to the Hellenized names that were used for chronology past Ptolemy in his Almagest and past others. Copernicus constructed his tables for the move of the planets based on the Egyptian year because of its mathematical regularity. A convention of mod Egyptologists is to number the months consecutively using Roman numerals.

A persistent problem of Egyptology has been that the festivals which give their names to the months occur in the next calendar month. Alan Gardiner proposed that an original calendar governed by the priests of Ra was supplanted by an improvement developed by the partisans of Thoth. Parker continued the discrepancy to his theories concerning the lunar calendar. Sethe, Weill, and Clagett proposed that the names expressed the idea that each calendar month culminated in the festival showtime the next.[92]

Months
Egyptological English language[64] Egyptian Greek[93] Coptic
Seasonal[64] Middle Kingdom New Kingdom
I I Akhet
Thoth
1st Month of Flood
ane
Ꜣḫt
Tḫy Ḏḥwtyt
Θωθ
Thōth
Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ
Tôut
Two II Akhet
Phaophi
2nd Month of Flood
2
Ꜣḫt
Mnht PꜢ northward-ip.t
Φαωφί

[z]
Phaōphí
Ⲡⲁⲱⲡⲉ
Baôba
III III Akhet
Athyr
3rd Month of Flood
3
Ꜣḫt
Ḥwt-ḥwr Ḥwt-ḥwr
Ἀθύρ
Athúr
Ϩⲁⲑⲱⲣ
Hatûr
IV IV Akhet
Choiak
4th Month of Flood
iv
Ꜣḫt
KꜢ-ḥr-KꜢ KꜢ-ḥr-KꜢ
Χοιάκ

[aa]
Khoiák
Ⲕⲟⲓⲁⲕ



Ⲕⲓⲁϩⲕ
Koiak
Kiahk
V I Peret
Tybi
1st Month of Growth
one
Prt
Sf-Bdt TꜢ-ꜥb
Τυβί

[ab]
Tubí
Ⲧⲱⲃⲓ
Tôbi
Six II Peret
Mechir
2nd Month of Growth
two
Prt
Rḫ Wr Mḫyr
Μεχίρ

[ac]
Mekhír
Ⲙⲉϣⲓⲣ
Meshir
VII Iii Peret
Phamenoth
3rd Month of Growth
3
Prt
Rḫ Nds PꜢ n-imn-ḥtp.westward
Φαμενώθ
Phamenṓth
Ⲡⲁⲣⲉⲙϩⲁⲧ
Baramhat
VIII IV Peret
Pharmuthi
4th Month of Growth
4
Prt
Rnwt PꜢ n-rnn.t
Φαρμουθί

[ad]
Pharmouthí
Ⲡⲁⲣⲙⲟⲩⲧⲉ
Barmoda
IX I Shemu
Pachons
1st Month of Low Water

1
Šmw
Ḫnsw PꜢ due north-ḫns.due west
Παχών
Pakhṓn
Ⲡⲁϣⲟⲛⲥ
Bashons
X Ii Shemu
Payni
2nd Month of Low Water

2
Šmw
Hnt-htj PꜢ n-in.t
Παϋνί

[ae]
Paüní
Ⲡⲁⲱⲛⲓ
Baôni
Eleven Three Shemu
Epiphi
3rd Month of Low H2o
iii
Šmw
Ipt-hmt Ipip
Ἐπιφί

[af]
Epiphí
Ⲉⲡⲓⲡ
Apip
XII IV Shemu
Mesore
fourth Calendar month of Low Water
4
Šmw
Opening of the Year

Wp Rnpt
Birth of the Sun
Mswt Rꜥ

Μεσορή
Mesorḗ
Ⲙⲉⲥⲱⲣⲓ
Masôri
IntercalaryMonth
EpagomenalDays
Those upon the Yr

Hryw Rnpt

ἐπαγόμεναι
epagómenai
Ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲩϫⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲃⲟⲧ
Bikudji en abod

Legacy

[edit]

An 11th-century Coptic calendrical icon displaying ii months of saints

The reformed Egyptian calendar continues to be used in Egypt as the Coptic agenda of the Egyptian Church and by the Egyptian populace at large, particularly the fellah, to summate the agricultural seasons. It differs but in its era, which is dated from the ascension of the Roman emperor Diocletian. Contemporary Egyptian farmers, like their aboriginal predecessors, dissever the year into three seasons: winter, summer, and inundation. Information technology is also associated with local festivals such equally the annual Flooding of the Nile and the ancient Bound festival
Sham el-Nessim.

The Ethiopian calendar is based on this reformed calendar simply uses Amharic names for its months and uses a dissimilar era. The French Republican Agenda was like, just began its yr at the autumnal equinox. British orrery maker John Gleave represented the Egyptian calendar in a reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism.

See also

[edit]

  • Egyptian chronology
  • Egyptian astronomy
  • Coptic and Ethiopian calendars

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    In the 30 years prior to the completion of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902, the menses between Egypt’s “annual” floods varied from 335 to 415 days,[3]
    with the first rise starting as early on as xv April and as late as 23 June.[14]

  2. ^

    For further variations, run across Brugsch.[32]

  3. ^

    Variant representations of the day of the new moon include
    ,
    ,[33]
    ,[34]
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,[35]
    ,[36]
    , and
    ;[37]
    ,[38]
    and

    in the Middle Kingdom; and

    in later inscriptions.[39]

  4. ^

    In afterward sources,
    Psḏntyw.[33]

  5. ^

    Variant representations of the twenty-four hours of the offset crescent moon include
    ,
    ,[33]
    ,[37]

    (properly N11A with the moon turned ninety° clockwise),[40]
    and
    .[41]

  6. ^

    Variant representations of the 6th day of the lunar month include
    ,[38]
    ,
    ,[42]
    ,[43]
    ,
    , and
    .[44]

  7. ^

    Variant representations of the 1st-quarter mean solar day include

    and
    .[45]

  8. ^

    Properly, the first sign is non an fauna jawbone

    F19

    but the rarer, similar-looking figure of a lion’s forepaw .[33]


  9. ^

    Properly, the 2 circles

    D12


    are shrunk and placed within the curve of the sickle

    U1

    , forming .[46]
    The male figure should exist human being sowing seeds , which includes a curve of dots coming from the man’due south hand.[47]


  10. ^

    Variant representations of the 24-hour interval of the full moon include
    ,
    ,[33]
    ,
    ,
    [40]

    N13

    , and
    .[48]


  11. ^

    Properly, N12\t1 or N12A, with the crescent moon

    N12


    turned 90° clockwise.


  12. ^

    Variant representations of the 21st solar day of the lunar month include

    and
    .[fifty]

  13. ^

    Variant representations of the 24th 24-hour interval of the lunar month include
    .[51]

  14. ^

    Variant representations of the 27th twenty-four hours of the lunar month include
    .[52]
    D310 is a foot

    D58


    crossed by a variant of puddle

    N37


    with 2[53]
    or 3[52]
    diagonal strokes across it.


  15. ^

    Properly, the loaf

    X1


    and diagonal strokes

    Z4


    are shrunk and fit under the two sides of the standard

    R12

    .


  16. ^

    Other possibilities for the original basis of the calendar include comparing of a detailed record of lunar dates against the ascension of Sirius over a 40 twelvemonth span, discounted past Neugebauer as likely to produce a calendar more accurate than the bodily one;[13]
    his own theory (discussed above) that the timing of successive floods were averaged over a few decades;[13]
    and the theory that the position of the solar ascent was recorded over a number of years, permitting comparison of the timing of the solstices over the years. A predynastic petroglyph discovered by the University of South Carolina’s expedition at Nekhen in 1986 may preserve such a tape, if it had been moved about 10° from its original position prior to discovery.[55]

  17. ^

    Information technology has been argued that the Ebers Papyrus shows a fixed agenda incorporating leap years, just this is no longer believed.[58]

  18. ^

    1460 Julian years (exactly) or Gregorian years (roughly) in mod calculations, equivalent to 1461 Egyptian civil years, merely evidently reckoned equally 1460 civil years (1459 Julian years) by the ancient Egyptians themselves.[68]

  19. ^

    Per O’Mara, really ±16 years when including the other factors affecting the calculated Sothic year.[21]

  20. ^

    Using Roman dating, he said of the relevant New Year that “when the emperor Antoninus Pius was consul of Rome for a second time with Bruttius Praesens this same solar day coincided with the 13th day before the calends of August” (Latin:
    cum… imperatore quinque hoc anno fuit Antonino Pio Ii Bruttio Praesente Romae consulibus idem dies fuerit ante diem XII kal. Aug.).[71]

  21. ^

    Meyer himself accepted the earliest appointment,[74]
    though before the Middle Chronology was shown to be more than likely than the brusque or long chronologies of the Centre East. Parker argued for its introduction
    ahead
    of apocatastasis on the eye date based on his understanding of its development from a Sothic-based lunar calendar. He placed its introduction within the range
    c.
     2937 – c. 2821
    BC, noting it was more probable in the Dynasty Ii part of the range.[75]
    [76]

  22. ^

    Specifically, the calculations are for thirty°N with no adjustment for clouds and an averaged amount of aerosols for the region. In practice, clouds or other obscurement and observational error may accept shifted any of these calculated values by a few days.[72]

  23. ^

    Latin:
    …ante diem XIII kal. Aug….[81]


  24. ^

    About ancient sources place the heliacal ascent of Sirius on nineteenJuly, but Dositheus, probable source of the date of the 239BC rising, elsewhere places it on 18July,[21]
    as practice Hephaistion of Thebes,[82]
    Salmasius, Zoroaster, Palladius, and Aëtius. Solinus placed information technology on the 20th; Meton and the unemended text of Censorinus’s volume on the 21st; and Ptolemy on the day subsequently that.[21]

  25. ^

    This seems to be the case, for instance, with astronomical records of the XVIII Dynasty and its successors, including the Ebers Papyrus, which seem to have been made at Thebes rather than Heliopolis.[88]

  26. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Phaôphi
    (
    Φαῶφι
    ).[94]

  27. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Khoíak
    (
    Χοίακ
    ).[94]

  28. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Tûbi
    (
    Τῦβι
    ).[94]

  29. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Mekheír
    (
    Μεχείρ
    ).[94]

  30. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Pharmoûthi
    (
    Φαρμοῦθι
    ).[94]

  31. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Paü̂ni
    (
    Παῧνι
    ).[94]

  32. ^

    Reconstructed Egyptian accentuation
    Epeíph
    (
    Ἐπείφ
    ).[94]

References

[edit]

Citations

[edit]


  1. ^

    Full version at Met Museum

  2. ^


    “Telling Time in Ancient Arab republic of egypt”.
    world wide web.metmuseum.org
    . Retrieved
    2022-05-27
    .


  3. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Winlock (1940), p. 450.

  4. ^

    Clagett (1995), pp. 10–11.

  5. ^

    Winlock (1940).
  6. ^


    a




    b



    Tetley (2014), p. 40.

  7. ^

    Winlock (1940), p. 452.

  8. ^


    Herodotus (1890), Macaulay (ed.),
    Histories, London: Macmillan, Book Two, §5

    .
  9. ^


    a




    b



    Tetley (2014), p. 39.

  10. ^

    Winlock (1940), p. 453.

  11. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. four–5.

  12. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 33.
  13. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Neugebauer (1939).
  14. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), p. 32.
  15. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Parker (1950), p. 23.
  16. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), pp. thirty–32.
  17. ^


    a




    b



    Høyrup, p. 13.

  18. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 3–4.
  19. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Schaefer (2000), p. 153–154.

  20. ^

    Parker (1950), p. 29.
  21. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f



    O’Mara (2003), p. eighteen.

  22. ^

    Parker (1950), pp. xiii–29.

  23. ^

    Tetley (2014), p. 153.
  24. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), p. 17.

  25. ^


    “Papyrus Carlsberg 9”.
    The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection. Copenhagen, DK: University of Copenhagen. Retrieved
    xi February
    2017
    .



  26. ^

    Parker (1950), pp. 13–23.

  27. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 25.

  28. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 26.

  29. ^

    Høyrup, p. 14.

  30. ^

    Parker (1950), p. 27.
  31. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), pp. 11–12.

  32. ^


    Brugsch, Heinrich (1883).
    Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum. Leipzig, DE. pp. 46–48.

    .
  33. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e



    Parker (1950), p. 11.

  34. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1231.

  35. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1232.

  36. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1668.
  37. ^


    a




    b



    Vygus (2015), p. 33.
  38. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), p. 12.

  39. ^

    Parker (1950), p. 13.
  40. ^


    a




    b



    Vygus (2015), p. 27.

  41. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 28.

  42. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1885.

  43. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1997.

  44. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 2464.

  45. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 277.

  46. ^

    Everson (1999), p. 57.

  47. ^

    Everson (1999), p. v.

  48. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 1235.

  49. ^

    Parker (1950), p. 18.

  50. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 917.

  51. ^

    Vygus (2015), p. 2294.
  52. ^


    a




    b



    Vygus (2015), p. 2472.

  53. ^

    Everson (1999), p. 25.

  54. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 28.

  55. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 37.

  56. ^


    Englund, Robert Thou. (1988), “Administrative Timekeeping in Ancient Mesopotamia”,
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,
    No. 31

    , pp. 121–185

    .

  57. ^

    Høyrup, pp. 12–xiii.

  58. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. vi.
  59. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Parker (1950), p. seven.

  60. ^

    Spalinger (1995), p. 33.
  61. ^


    a




    b



    Parker (1950), pp. 43–five.

  62. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. four.

  63. ^

    Jauhiainen (2009), p. 39.
  64. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Clagett (1995), p. 5.

  65. ^


    Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis (1911),
    A Hieroglyphic Vocabulary to the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., p. 201, ISBN9780486144924

    .
  66. ^


    a




    b



    Clagett (1995), p. 1.

  67. ^


    Lacroix, Jean-Pierre (1997), “Heliacal rising of Sirius in Thebes”,
    Thebes: A Reflection of the Sky on the Pharaoh’due south Earth

    .
  68. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e



    O’Mara (2003), p. 17.

  69. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 29.
  70. ^


    a




    b




    c




    Gautschy, Rita (2012),
    The Star Sirius in Ancient Egypt and Babylonia

    .

  71. ^


    Censorinus,
    De Die Natali
    (in Latin), Ch. XXI, §10

    , translated into English by William Maude in 1900.
  72. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Schaefer (2000), p. 151.

  73. ^


    Grun, Bernard (1975), “4241BC”,
    The Timetables of History,
    3rd ed.

    , Thames & Hudson

    .
  74. ^


    a




    b



    Clagett (1995), p. 31.

  75. ^

    Parker (1950), p. 53.

  76. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 36–7.

  77. ^


    Van Gent, Robert Harry (2016), “Calendar Date Module”,
    Aboriginal Luni-Solar and Planetary Ephemerides, Utrecht: University of Utrecht

    .

  78. ^

    Schaefer (2000), p. 150.

  79. ^


    Walker, John (2015), “Agenda Converter”,
    Fourmilab

    .

  80. ^


    Scaliger, Joseph Justus (1583),
    Opus Novum de Emendatione Temporum, p. 138

    .
    (in Latin)

  81. ^

    Grafton & al. (1985), p. 455.

  82. ^

    Luft (2006), p. 314.

  83. ^

    O’Mara (2003), p. 25.

  84. ^

    Luft (2006), p. 312.

  85. ^

    Forisek (2003), p. 12.

  86. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 30.

  87. ^

    Schaefer (2000), p. 152–3.

  88. ^


    “Ancient Egyptian Civil Calendar”,
    Biblical Archaeology, La Via

    .

  89. ^

    Tetley (2014), p. 43.

  90. ^

    A Chronological Survey of Precisely Dated Demotic and Aberrant Hieratic Sources

  91. ^

    Alexandrian reform of the Egyptian calendar

  92. ^

    Clagett (1995), p. 14–15.

  93. ^


    Montanari, F. (1995),
    Vocabolario della Lingua Greca

    .
    (in Italian)
  94. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    east




    f




    g




    Pestman, P.Due west. (1990),
    The New Papyrological Primer

    .

Bibliography

[edit]

  • Clagett, Marshall (1995),
    Aboriginal Egyptian Science: A Source Volume,
    Vol. Ii:
    Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy
    ,
    Memoirs of the APS, No. 214, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Lodge, ISBN9780871692146

    .
  • Everson, Michael (1999),
    Encoding Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Plane 1 of the UCS
    (PDF), Unicode

    .
  • Forisek, Péter (2003),
    Censorinus and His Piece of work
    De Die Natali


    (PDF), Debrecen: University of Debrecen

    . (Full Hungarian version.)
  • Grafton, Anthony Thomas; et al. (1985), “Technical Chronology and Astrological History in Varro, Censorinus, and Others”,
    The Classical Quarterly,
    Vol. XXXV, No. two

    , pp. 454–465

    .
  • Høyrup, Jens, “A Historian’due south History of Aboriginal Egyptian Science”
    (PDF),
    Physis

    , a review of Clagett’s
    Aboriginal Egyptian Science, Vols. I & Two.
  • Jauhiainen, Heidi (2009),
    Do Non Celebrate Your Feast without Your Neighbors: A Report of References to Feasts and Festivals in Non-Literary Documents from Ramesside Period Deir el-Medina
    (PDF),
    Publications of the Institute for Asian and African Studies, No. 10, Helsinki: Academy of Helsinki

    .
  • Krauss, Rolf; et al., eds. (2006),
    Ancient Egyptian Chronology,
    Handbook of Oriental Studies, Sect. one, Vol. 83, Leiden: Brill

    .
  • Luft, Ulrich (2006), “Absolute Chronology in Egypt in the First Quarter of the 2d Millennium BC”,
    Arab republic of egypt and the Levant,
    Vol. 16

    , Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, pp. 309–316

    .
  • Neugebauer, Otto Eduard (1939), “Die Bedeutungslosigkeit der ‘Sothisperiode’ für die Älteste Ägyptische Chronologie”,
    Acta Orientalia,
    No. 16

    , pp. 169 ff

    .
    (in German)
  • O’Mara, Patrick F. (January 2003), “Censorinus, the Sothic Cycle, and Calendar Year One in Ancient Egypt: The Epistemological Problem”,
    Journal of Near Eastern Studies,
    Vol. LXII, No. 1

    , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 17–26

    .
  • Parker, Richard Anthony (1950),
    The Calendars of Ancient Egypt
    (PDF),
    Studies in Aboriginal Oriental Culture, No. 26, Chicago: Academy of Chicago Press

    .
  • Schaefer, Bradley Elliott (2000), “The Heliacal Rise of Sirius and Ancient Egyptian Chronology”,
    Journal for the History of Astronomy,
    Vol. XXXI, Pt. 2

    , pp. 149–155, Bibcode:2000JHA….31..149S

    .
  • Spalinger, Anthony (January 1995), “Some Remarks on the Epagomenal Days in Ancient Egypt”,
    Journal of About Eastern Studies,
    Vol. 54, No. one

    , pp. 33–47

    .
  • Tetley, K. Christine (2014),
    The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings,
    Vol. I

    , archived from the original on 2017-02-11, retrieved
    2017-02-09


    .
  • Winlock, Herbert Eustis (1940), “The Origin of the Aboriginal Egyptian Agenda”,
    Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,
    No. 83

    , New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 447–464

    .
  • Vygus, Marker (2015),
    Center Egyptian Dictionary
    (PDF)

    .

External links

[edit]

  • Detailed information about the Egyptian calendars, including lunar cycles
  • Date Converter for Ancient Egypt
  • Calendrica Includes the Egyptian civil calendar with years in Ptolemy’s Nabonassar Era (year 1 = 747 BC) likewise as the Coptic, Ethiopic, and French calendars.
  • Civil, ver. iv.0, is a 25kB DOS program to convert dates in the Egyptian civil calendar to the Julian or Gregorian ones



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_calendar