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Art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiations

Photography

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera

Other names Science or art of creating durable images
Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation
Inventor Louis Daguerre (1839)

Henry Fox Talbot (1839)
Related Stereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Calorie-free field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

Photography
is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic moving picture. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (due east.g., photolithography), and business organisation, also equally its more straight uses for fine art, motion-picture show and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.[1]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electric charge at each pixel, which is electronically candy and stored in a digital epitome file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically “developed” into a visible image, either negative or positive, depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative prototype on motion-picture show is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known equally a impress, either by using an enlarger or by contact press.

Etymology

[edit]

The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtós), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “low-cal”[two]
and γραφή (graphé) “representation past means of lines” or “drawing”,[3]
together meaning “cartoon with lite”.[4]

Several people may take coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the give-and-take,
photographie, in individual notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[5]
This claim is widely reported merely is not even so largely recognized internationally. The kickoff use of the word past the Franco-Brazilian inventor became widely known subsequently the research of Boris Kossoy in 1980.[half dozen]

The German paper
Vossische Zeitung
of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled
Photographie, discussing several priority claims – particularly Henry Fob Talbot’s – regarding Daguerre’s claim of invention.[7]
The article is the earliest known occurrence of the give-and-take in public print.[eight]
Information technology was signed “J.Grand.”, believed to accept been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[9]
The astronomer Sir John Herschel is likewise credited with coining the discussion, independent of Talbot, in 1839.[x]

The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fob Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to accept known or used the give-and-take “photography”, merely referred to their processes as “Heliography” (Niépce), “Photogenic Drawing”/”Talbotype”/”Calotype” (Talbot) and “Daguerreotype” (Daguerre).[ix]

History

[edit]

Forerunner technologies

[edit]

A photographic camera obscura used for drawing

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura (“dark chamber” in Latin) that provides an prototype of a scene dates back to aboriginal China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a photographic camera obscura in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[xi]
[12]
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.[13]

The Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) also invented a camera obscura as well equally the showtime truthful pinhole camera.[12]
[14]
[fifteen]
The invention of the photographic camera has been traced back to the work of Ibn al-Haytham.[16]
While the furnishings of a single low-cal passing through a pinhole had been described earlier,[xvi]
Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the photographic camera obscura,[17]
including the outset geometrical and quantitative descriptions of the phenomenon,[18]
and was the beginning to utilise a screen in a dark room then that an image from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected onto a screen on the other side.[nineteen]
He also kickoff understood the relationship betwixt the focal signal and the pinhole,[twenty]
and performed early experiments with afterimages, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century.[fifteen]

Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camerae obscurae that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and projection a laterally reversed, upside downwards prototype on a piece of newspaper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. It is a box with a small pigsty in one side, which allows specific calorie-free rays to enter, projecting an inverted image onto a viewing screen or paper.

The birth of photography was so concerned with inventing means to capture and go along the image produced by the photographic camera obscura. Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[21]
and Georg Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silverish chloride,[22]
and the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham’due south Book of Optics are capable of producing archaic photographs using medieval materials.[23]
[24]

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[25]
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[26]
The fiction volume
Giphantie, published in 1760, past French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what tin be interpreted every bit photography.[25]

Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known try to capture the epitome in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in straight sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that “the images formed by ways of a photographic camera obscura have been plant as well faint to produce, in whatever moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silverish.” The shadow images eventually darkened all over.[27]

Invention

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Earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate made by Nicéphore Niépce.[28]
The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means. This was a step towards the beginning permanent photograph taken with a photographic camera.

View of the Boulevard du Temple, a daguerreotype fabricated by Louis Daguerre in 1838, is by and large accepted as the earliest photograph to include people. Information technology is a view of a busy street, just because the exposure lasted for several minutes the moving traffic left no trace. Only the two men nearly the lesser left corner, one of them apparently having his boots polished by the other, remained in one place long enough to be visible.

The kickoff permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, only it was destroyed in a later attempt to brand prints from it.[28]
Niépce was successful once more in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the
View from the Window at Le Gras, the primeval surviving photograph from nature (i.eastward., of the epitome of a real-world scene, every bit formed in a camera obscura past a lens).[29]

Because Niépce’south camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more calorie-free-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy.

Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre so redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abased many years before because of his inability to make the images he captured with them low-cal-fast and permanent. Daguerre’s efforts culminated in what would subsequently exist named the daguerreotype process. The essential elements—a silver-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, developed by mercury vapor, and “stock-still” with hot saturated salt h2o—were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the primeval confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: dissimilar the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently nevertheless throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to be visible. The existence of Daguerre’s process was publicly announced, without details, on vii January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France shortly agreed to pay Daguerre a alimony in exchange for the correct to nowadays his invention to the world as the gift of French republic, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on 19 Baronial 1839. In that same year, American lensman Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic cocky-portrait.

A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed by William Play a joke on Talbot in 1835. Shown here in positive form, this may exist the oldest extant photographic negative made in a photographic camera.

In Brazil, Hercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming information technology
Photographie.

Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Flim-flam Talbot, had succeeded in making rough but reasonably calorie-free-fast silver images on newspaper as early equally 1834 but had kept his work hole-and-corner. After reading about Daguerre’s invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and gear up most improving on information technology. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot’s paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the photographic camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemical development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot’s process, unlike Daguerre’southward, created a translucent negative which could be used to impress multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography upwardly to the nowadays twenty-four hours, as daguerreotypes could but be replicated past rephotographing them with a photographic camera.[thirty]
Talbot’s famous tiny newspaper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he fabricated in the summertime of 1835, may be the oldest photographic camera negative in existence.[31]
[32]

In France, Hippolyte Bayard invented his ain procedure for producing straight positive paper prints and claimed to have invented photography earlier than Daguerre or Talbot.[33]

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the “pattern”. He was the showtime to employ the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could exist used to “prepare” silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He fabricated the first glass negative in late 1839.

Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana–per The New York Times, “one of the primeval and most dramatic examples of how the newborn medium of photography could alter the course of history.”[34]

Ad for Campbell’s Photo Gallery from The Macon City Directory, circa 1877.

In the March 1851 issue of
The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. Information technology became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion procedure; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive paradigm on metal) and the drinking glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and press were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-colour photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908.

Drinking glass plates were the medium for well-nigh original camera photography from the late 1850s until the full general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were non available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such every bit astrophotography, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser holography, it has persisted into the 21st century.

Film

[edit]

Undeveloped Arista blackness-and-white film, ISO 125/22°

Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their piece of work enabled the first quantitative mensurate of motion-picture show speed to be devised.

The commencement flexible photographic roll film was marketed past George Eastman, founder of Kodak in 1885, but this original “film” was actually a coating on a newspaper base of operations. As role of the processing, the image-begetting layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The commencement transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was fabricated from highly flammable nitrocellulose known as nitrate movie.

Although cellulose acetate or “prophylactic film” had been introduced by Kodak in 1908,[35]
at get-go it constitute but a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of existence considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was not completed for 10-ray films until 1933, and although safety film was ever used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm move pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early on 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats.[36]
Although modernistic photography is dominated by digital users, motion picture continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive “look” of moving picture based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (one) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with motion-picture show vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors)[37]
(ii) resolution and (three) continuity of tone.[38]

Blackness-and-white

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Originally, all photography was monochrome, or
black-and-white. Even after color motion-picture show was readily available, black-and-white photography connected to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost, chemical stability, and its “classic” photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography.[39]
Monochromatic pictures are not necessarily equanimous of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray simply tin involve shades of ane particular hue depending on the procedure. The cyanotype process, for case, produces an image composed of blueish tones. The albumen print process, publicly revealed in 1847, produces brownish tones.

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-colour digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create blackness-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage sure photographs taken in colour which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-colour-toned images they are constitute to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are withal produced, by and large for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras take an choice to shoot in monochrome, and almost all prototype editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome prototype from one shot in color.

Color

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Colour photography was explored get-go in the 1840s. Early on experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for photographic camera images) and could not “fix” the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white lite.

The get-go permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published past Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855.[xl]
[41]
The foundation of virtually all practical colour processes, Maxwell’s idea was to take three separate blackness-and-white photographs through red, green and bluish filters.[40]
[41]
This provides the lensman with the three basic channels required to recreate a colour image. Transparent prints of the images could exist projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the project screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A colour print on newspaper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, equally this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Acland demonstrates, but in its earliest years, the need for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated press processes fabricated it extremely rare.

Russian lensman Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made all-encompassing use of this colour separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on unlike parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited colour “fringes” or, if quickly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

Implementation of colour photography was hindered past the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, simply slightly sensitive to dark-green, and almost insensitive to carmine. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 of a sudden made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellowish and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome, the first commercially successful colour process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to exist recorded equally adjacent microscopic image fragments. Afterwards an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the center, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

Kodachrome, the first modern “integral tripack” (or “monopack”) color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three colour components in a multi-layer emulsion. I layer was sensitized to record the cerise-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded but the green part and a 3rd recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the issue would simply be 3 superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by calculation color couplers during a circuitous processing process.

Agfa’south similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Dissimilar Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which profoundly simplified the processing. Currently, available color films notwithstanding employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, well-nigh closely resembling Agfa’s product.

Instant color motion-picture show, used in a special photographic camera which yielded a unique finished colour print merely a infinitesimal or ii later on the exposure, was introduced past Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may course images equally positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or equally color negatives intended for utilize in creating positive colour enlargements on specially coated newspaper. The latter is now the most common course of film (not-digital) color photography attributable to the introduction of automated photo press equipment. After a transition menstruation centered effectually 1995–2005, color motion-picture show was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Motion-picture show continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive “look”.

Digital

[edit]

Kodak DCS 100, based on a Nikon F3 trunk with Digital Storage Unit of measurement

In 1981, Sony unveiled the get-go consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for picture show: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital.

The starting time digital photographic camera to both record and salve images in a digital format was the Fujix DS-1P created by Fujfilm in 1988.[42]

In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the offset commercially available digital unmarried lens reflex photographic camera. Although its loftier toll precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional person photography, commercial digital photography was built-in.

Digital imaging uses an electronic epitome sensor to record the image every bit a prepare of electronic data rather than as chemic changes on movie.[43]
An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This deviation allows for a degree of image mail-processing that is comparatively difficult in picture-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

Photography on a smartphone

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the globe are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.

Techniques

[edit]

Angles such every bit vertical, horizontal, or every bit pictured here diagonal are considered important photographic techniques

A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; dualphotography; total-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.

Cameras

[edit]

The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory.[44]

Photographers control the camera and lens to “betrayal” the light recording material to the required corporeality of light to class a “latent image” (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, afterwards appropriate processing, is converted to a usable prototype. Digital cameras apply an electronic prototype sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, merely tin can be reproduced on a newspaper.

The camera (or ‘camera obscura’) is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the calorie-free that forms the prototype. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject existence photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras tin range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process photographic camera).

Every bit soon as photographic materials became “fast” (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small-scale “detective” cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket sentinel (the
Ticka
camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a necktie pin that was really the lens.

The picture show camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a even so camera, which captures a single snapshot at a fourth dimension, the moving picture camera takes a series of images, each called a “frame”. This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, chosen the “frame rate” (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person’s optics and brain merge the separate pictures to create the illusion of motion.[45]

Stereoscopic

[edit]

Photographs, both monochrome and color, tin can be captured and displayed through 2 side-past-side images that emulate homo stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in movement.[46]
While known colloquially every bit “3-D” photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more than recently in digital electronic methods (including cell telephone cameras).

Dualphotography

[edit]

An instance of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (east.m. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or two networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography). The dualphoto appliance can exist used to simultaneously capture both the subject field and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at in one case, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a unmarried paradigm.[47]


Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

[edit]

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been bachelor for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in total spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices beyond the ultraviolet, visible and infrared atomic number 82 to new artistic visions.

Modified digital cameras can observe some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the well-nigh infrared spectrum, as nigh digital imaging sensors are sensitive from most 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital photographic camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from nigh 400 nm to 700 nm.[48]

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum calorie-free at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, greenish and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).

Uses of total spectrum photography are for art photography, geology, forensics and law enforcement.


Layering


[edit]

Layering is a photographic composition technique that manipulates the foreground, subject or heart-ground, and background layers in a way that they all piece of work together to tell a story through the image.[49]
Layers may be incorporated by altering the focal length, distorting the perspective by positioning the camera in a certain spot.[50]
People, motility, light and a variety of objects tin can be used in layering.[51]

Low-cal field

[edit]

Digital methods of image capture and display processing accept enabled the new technology of “light field photography” (also known as synthetic aperture photography). This procedure allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected
afterward
the photo has been captured.[52]
As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the “light field” is understood equally 5-dimensional, with each point in three-D space having attributes of two more angles that define the management of each ray passing through that bespeak.

These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the employ of microlenses at each pixel signal inside the 2-dimensional prototype sensor. Every pixel of the last image is really a option from each sub-assortment located under each microlens, equally identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm.

Other

[edit]

As well the camera, other methods of forming images with light are bachelor. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images merely uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced past the shadows of objects bandage on the photographic newspaper, without the use of a camera. Objects tin can also be placed straight on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

Types

[edit]

Apprentice

[edit]

Amateur photographers take photos for personal utilize, as a hobby or out of casual interest, rather than as a business or job. The quality amateur piece of work can be comparable to that of many professionals. Amateurs can fill a gap in subjects or topics that might not otherwise be photographed if they are not commercially useful or salable. Apprentice photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the manus-held camera.[53]
Twenty-showtime century social media and near-ubiquitous camera phones accept fabricated photographic and video recording pervasive in everyday life. In the mid-2010s smartphone cameras added numerous automatic assistance features like color management, autofocus face detection and image stabilization that significantly decreased skill and attempt needed to take high quality images.[54]

Commercial

[edit]

Commercial photography is probably best defined as whatsoever photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of fine art. In this light, coin could exist paid for the subject of the photo or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Ad photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or production. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Architectural photography focuses on capturing photographs of buildings and architectural structures that are aesthetically pleasing and accurate in terms of representations of their subjects.
  • Issue photography focuses on photographing guests and occurrences at more often than not social events.
  • Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertisement photography. Way photography, like the work featured in
    Harper’s Bazaar, emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men’due south magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude.
  • 360 product photography displays a serial of photos to give the impression of a rotating object. This technique is commonly used past ecommerce websites to help shoppers visualise products.
  • Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well every bit the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific bear witness. Concert photographs are oft used to promote the artist or ring in addition to the venue.
  • Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of law-breaking such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject affair, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advert purposes.
  • Real Estate photography focuses on the production of photographs showcasing a property that is for sale, such photographs requires the use of broad-lens and extensive knowledge in High-dynamic-range imaging photography.

Case of a studio-made food photo.

  • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising utilize. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills.
  • Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs fabricated in this context are accepted every bit a documentation of a news story.
  • Paparazzi is a grade of photojournalism in which the lensman captures aboveboard images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the stop user of the images.
  • Landscape photography depicts locations.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of wild animals.

Art

[edit]

During the 20th century, both art photography and documentary photography became accepted past the English language-speaking art world and the gallery arrangement. In the Us, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. The netherlands Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine fine art. At starting time, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This motility is chosen Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ wait. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Grouping f/64 to advocate ‘straight photography’, the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a affair that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in creative circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an epitome. If photography is authentically art, and so photography in the context of art would demand redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images “written with light”; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of fine art.

Clive Bell in his archetype essay
Art
states that only “meaning class” can distinguish art from what is not art.

There must be some ane quality without which a piece of work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least caste, no work is birthday worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is mutual to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’southward frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one reply seems possible – significant class. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our artful emotions.[55]

On 7 Feb 2007, Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph
99 Cent 2 Diptychon
for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time.[56]

Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photo. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the discipline is strictly abstract.

In parallel to this evolution, the so largely separate interface between painting and photography was airtight in the early 1970s with the piece of work of the photograph artists Pierre Cordier (Chimigramm), Chemigram and Josef H. Neumann, Chemogram. In 1974 the chemograms by Josef H. Neumann ended the separation of the painterly background and the photographic layer by showing the flick elements in a symbiosis that had never existed before, as an unmistakable unique specimen, in a simultaneous painterly and at the same time existent photographic perspective, using lenses, within a photographic layer, united in colors and shapes. This Neumann chemogram from the seventies of the 20th century thus differs from the showtime of the previously created cameraless chemigrams of a Pierre Cordier and the photogram Man Ray or László Moholy-Nagy of the previous decades. These works of art were near simultaneous with the invention of photography by various important artists who characterized Hippolyte Bayard, Thomas Wedgwood, William Henry Fox Talbot in their early on stages, and afterward Man Ray and László Moholy-Nagy in the twenties and by the painter in the thirties Edmund Kesting and Christian Schad by draping objects direct onto accordingly sensitized photo newspaper and using a light source without a camera.
[57]

Photojournalism

[edit]

National Guardsman in Washington D.C. (2021)

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in gild to tell a news story. It is at present unremarkably understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.chiliad., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or glory photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and assistance communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is non merely informative, but as well entertaining, including sports photography.

Science and forensics

[edit]

The photographic camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for case), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The photographic camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton span collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Criminal offence scene photos are taken from 3 vantage signal. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-upward.[58]

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful photographic camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced 12- or 24- hr photographic traces of the minute-by-infinitesimal variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and the iii components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in apply until well into the 20th century.[59]
[lx]
Charles Brooke a little later developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.[61]

Scientific discipline uses paradigm technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are like in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation.[62]
Photography has become universal in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such every bit infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well equally spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time.[63]

The first photographed atom was discovered in 2022 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an “Ion” of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic motion picture.[64]

Wildlife Photography

[edit]

Wild fauna photography involves capturing images of diverse forms of wildlife. Unlike other forms of photography such as product or food photography, successful wildlife photography requires a lensman to choose the correct place and correct time when specific wildlife are present and active. It oft requires bang-up patience and considerable skill and control of the right photographic equipment.[65]

Social and cultural implications

[edit]

In that location are many ongoing questions almost unlike aspects of photography. In her
On Photography
(1977), Susan Sontag dismisses the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[66]
Sontag argues, “To photo is to appropriate the matter photographed. It means putting ane’southward self into a sure relation to the earth that feels like noesis, and therefore like power.”[67]
Photographers determine what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what bending to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a item socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can exist argued that photography is a subjective form of representation.

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its consequence on club. In Alfred Hitchcock’s
Rear Window
(1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. ‘Although the photographic camera is an observation station, the human action of photographing is more than passive observing’.[67]

The camera doesn’t rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest accomplish of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual push button and shove, tin exist conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.[67]

Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns considering of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in postal service-processing. Many photojournalists take alleged they will non crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to brand “photomontages”, passing them as “real” photographs. Today’s technology has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice lensman. However, recent changes of in-photographic camera processing allow digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of guild.[68]
Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and order at big have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that “to photo is to turn people into objects that tin can exist symbolically possessed.” Desensitization word goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her business organization that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the power to construct reality.[67]

I of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a “tourist gaze”[69]
in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has as well been argued that there exists a “reverse gaze”[70]
through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer equally a shallow consumer of images.

Law

[edit]

Photography is both restricted and protected by the police in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the Us, photography is protected equally a First Subpoena right and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long every bit it is in plain view.[71]
In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[72]
In South Africa, any person may photograph any other person, without their permission, in public spaces and the only specific brake placed on what may not be photographed by regime is related to anything classed every bit national security. Each country has unlike laws.

Come across too

[edit]

  • Outline of photography
  • Science of photography
  • Listing of photographers
  • Listing of photography awards
  • Astrophotography
  • Image editing
  • Imaging
  • Photolab and minilab
  • Visual arts

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Farther reading

[edit]

Introduction

[edit]

  • Barrett, T 2022, Criticizing Photographs: an introduction to understanding images, 5th edn, McGraw-Loma, New York.
  • Bate, D. (2009), Photography: The Key Concepts, Bloomsbury, New York.
  • Berger, J. (Dyer, M. ed.), (2013), Understanding a Photograph, Penguin Classics, London.
  • Bright, S 2022, Fine art Photography Now, Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Cotton, C. (2015), The Photograph as Contemporary Art, 3rd edn, Thames & Hudson, New York.
  • Heiferman, Grand. (2013), Photography Changes Everything, Aperture Foundation, US.
  • Shore, S. (2015), The Nature of Photographs, 2nd ed. Phaidon, New York.
  • Wells, L. (2004),
    Photography. A Critical Introduction
    [Paperback], 3rd ed. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-30704-Ten

History

[edit]

  • A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998
  • Franz-Xaver Schlegel,
    Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den U.s.a. 1914–1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN iii-00-004407-8.

Reference works

[edit]

  • Tom Ang (2002).
    Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer. Watson-Guptill. ISBN978-0-8174-3789-iii.

  • Hans-Michael Koetzle:
    Das Lexikon der Fotografen: 1900 bis heute, Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 p., ISBN iii-426-66479-8
  • John Hannavy (ed.):
    Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, 1736 p., New York: Routledge 2005 ISBN 978-0-415-97235-two
  • Lynne Warren (Hrsg.):
    Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 1719 p., New York: Routledge, 2006
  • The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Printing 2005
  • “The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography”, Richard Zakia, Leslie Stroebel, Focal Press 1993, ISBN 0-240-51417-3
  • Stroebel, Leslie (2000).
    Basic Photographic Materials and Processes. et al. Boston: Focal Printing. ISBN978-0-240-80405-seven.

Other books

[edit]

  • Photography and The Art of Seeing
    by Freeman Patterson, Fundamental Porter Books 1989, ISBN 1-55013-099-four.
  • The Fine art of Photography:
    An Approach to Personal Expression by Bruce Barnbaum, Rocky Nook 2010, ISBN 1-933952-68-7.
  • Prototype Clarity: High Resolution Photography
    by John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-8.

External links

[edit]

  • World History of Photography From The History of Fine art.
  • Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Procedure From the State Library & Athenaeum of Florida.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

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