Garden roses – Green Planet Photography | OpenSea

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Genus of plants


Temporal range:




Due south









Rosa rubiginosa
Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Club: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Roseae
Genus: Rosa


Come across List of

  • Hulthemia
  • ×Hulthemosa
    Juz. (Hulthemia

is a woody perennial angiosperm of the genus

, in the family Rosaceae, or the bloom it bears. There are over three hundred species and tens of thousands of cultivars.[
citation needed

They class a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles.[
commendation needed

Their flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa.[
citation needed

Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height.[
citation needed

Dissimilar species hybridize hands, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.


The name
comes from Latin
rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ῥόδον
(Aeolic βρόδον
wródon), itself borrowed from Old Western farsi
(wurdi), related to Avestan
varəδa, Sogdian
ward, Parthian


Rose thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis

Exterior view of rose buds

Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip

The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In about species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to five.9 in) long, pinnate, with (three–) five–9 (–xiii) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets unremarkably accept a serrated margin, and often a few pocket-sized prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from Southeast Asia) are evergreen or well-nigh and so.

The flowers of nigh species have five petals, with the exception of
Rosa sericea, which normally has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species xanthous or crimson. Beneath the petals are v sepals (or in the example of some
Rosa sericea, four). These may be long plenty to be visible when viewed from above and appear equally green points alternating with the rounded petals. At that place are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes.[iii]
Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a drupe-like construction called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars exercise not produce hips, equally the flowers are and then tightly petalled that they exercise not provide access for pollination. The hips of almost species are red, only a few (due east.g.
Rosa pimpinellifolia) take nighttime purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 “seeds” (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose (Rosa canina) and rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, amidst the richest sources of whatever plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their debris. Some birds, especially finches, besides eat the seeds.

The sharp growths forth a rose stem, though commonly chosen “thorns”, are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem), unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which assist the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over information technology. Some species such equally
Rosa rugosa
Rosa pimpinellifolia
have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, simply too perhaps an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are often browsed by deer. A few species of roses have but vestigial prickles that have no points.


The oldest remains of roses are from the Late Eocene Florissant Formation of Colorado.[4]
Roses were present in Europe by the early Oligocene.[5]

Today’s garden roses come from 18th-century China.[half-dozen]
Among the old Chinese garden roses, the Sometime Chroma group is the well-nigh archaic, while newer groups are the near diverse.[7]


Rosa gallica
Evêque, painted by Redouté

The genus
is composed of 140–180 species and divided into four subgenera:[viii]

  • Hulthemia

    Simplicifoliae, meaning “with single leaves”) containing ii species from southwest Asia,
    Rosa persica
    Rosa berberifolia, which are the just roses without compound leaves or stipules.

  • Hesperrhodos

    (from the Greek for “western rose”) contains
    Rosa minutifolia
    Rosa stellata, from North America.

  • Platyrhodon

    (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia,
    Rosa roxburghii
    (likewise known as the chestnut rose).

  • Rosa

    (the blazon subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called
    Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.

    • Banksianae
       – white and yellowish flowered roses from China.

    • Bracteatae
       – three species, two from Mainland china and one from India.

    • Caninae
       – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and N Africa.

    • Carolinae
       – white, pinkish, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.

    • Chinensis
       – white, pink, yellowish, crimson and mixed-color roses from Communist china and Burma.

    • Gallicanae
       – pinkish to crimson and striped flowered roses from southwest asia and Europe.

    • Gymnocarpae
       – i species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east asia.

    • Laevigatae
       – a unmarried white flowered species from Prc.

    • Pimpinellifoliae
       – white, pink, brilliant yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.

    • Rosa

      (syn. sect.
      Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere simply Due north Africa.

    • Synstylae
       – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.


Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They take been besides used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as mural plants, for hedging and for other commonsensical purposes such as game encompass and slope stabilization.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as
Rosa glauca
Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such equally
Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as
Rosa moyesii).

Ornamental roses take been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and Prc.[9]
It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars accept been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants.[ten]
About are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having morphed into additional petals.

In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.

Cut flowers

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated weather condition until fix for display at their indicate of sale.

In temperate climates, cut roses are ofttimes grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under comprehend in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and illness command can exist carried out effectively. Pregnant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.[11]

Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like rainbow roses.


Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (besides called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained past steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose h2o which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia[12]
and so spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Federal republic of germany, damask roses (Rosa
‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In other parts of the world
is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in color. The weight of oil extracted is nearly one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, virtually two one thousand flowers are required to produce ane gram of oil.

The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid equanimous of alkanes, which separates from rose oil.[13]
β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the olfactory property.

Food and drink

Rose hips are high in vitamin C, are edible raw,[fourteen]
and occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup, or are brewed for tea. They are as well pressed and filtered to brand rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.[15]

Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine—especially in sweets such as Turkish delight,[xvi]
barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, knafeh, and nougat. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas. A sweet preserve of rose petals called gulkand is common in the Indian subcontinent. The leaves and washed roots are also sometimes used to make tea.[14]

In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most unremarkably made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent, Rooh Afza, a concentrated squash fabricated with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured frozen desserts such every bit ice cream and kulfi.[17]

The bloom stems and young shoots are edible, equally are the petals (sans the white or green bases).[14]
The latter are usually used every bit flavouring or to add together their scent to nutrient.[19]
Other minor uses include candy-coated rose petals.[20]

Rose creams (rose-flavoured fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallised rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the Uk.

Under the American Federal Nutrient, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[21]
there are only certain
species, varieties, and parts are listed as by and large recognized as safe (GRAS).

  • Rose absolute:
    Rosa alba
    Rosa centifolia
    Rosa damascena
    Rosa gallica
    L., and vars. of these spp.
  • Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto
  • Rose buds
  • Rose flowers
  • Rose fruit (hips)
  • Rose leaves:


The rose hip, usually from
R. canina, is used equally a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and accept been used as a nutrient supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines.
Rosa chinensis
has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species accept been used for tum issues, and are existence investigated for decision-making cancer growth.[23]
In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, “compound of roses”, from ῥόδων, “of roses”[24]) is a name given to various compounds in which reddish roses are an ingredient.

Art and symbolism

The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. In ancient Greece, the rose was closely associated with the goddess Aphrodite.[25]
In the
Iliad, Aphrodite protects the trunk of Hector using the “immortal oil of the rose”[27]
and the primitive Greek lyric poet Ibycus praises a beautiful youth maxim that Aphrodite nursed him “among rose blossoms”.[28]
The second-century AD Greek travel author Pausanias associates the rose with the story of Adonis and states that the rose is red because Aphrodite wounded herself on i of its thorns and stained the flower red with her claret.[29]
Book 11 of the ancient Roman novel
The Gilt Donkey
by Apuleius contains a scene in which the goddess Isis, who is identified with Venus, instructs the principal character, Lucius, who has been transformed into a donkey, to swallow rose petals from a crown of roses worn by a priest every bit part of a religious procession in order to regain his humanity.[26]

Post-obit the Christianization of the Roman Empire, the rose became identified with the Virgin Mary. The colour of the rose and the number of roses received has symbolic representation.[xxx]
The rose symbol eventually led to the creation of the rosary and other devotional prayers in Christianity.[32]

Always since the 1400s, the Franciscans have had a Crown Rosary of the Seven Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary.[26]
In the 1400s and 1500s, the Carthusians promoted the idea of sacred mysteries associated with the rose symbol and rose gardens.[26]
Albrecht Dürer’s painting
The Feast of the Rosary
(1506) depicts the Virgin Mary distributing garlands of roses to her worshippers.[26]

Roses symbolised the Houses of York and Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.

Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or every bit architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Henri Fantin-Latour was besides a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named later on the artist.

Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses amid their works. In the 19th century, for example, artists associated the city of Trieste with a certain rare white rose, and this rose developed as the city’s symbol. It was not until 2021 that the rose, which was believed to be extinct, was rediscovered there.[33]

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose[34]
the floral emblem of the The states.[35]

Pests and diseases

Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these affect other plants, including other genera of the Rosaceae.

Cultivated roses are often subject to severe harm from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot exist usefully grown without regular treatment to control these bug.

See also

  • ADR rose
  • Listing of Award of Garden Merit roses
  • Listing of rose cultivars named after people
  • Rose (colour)
  • Rose garden
  • Rose Hall of Fame
  • Rose show
  • Rose trial grounds


  1. ^

    American Heritage Dictionary of the English, Fourth Edition, s.v. “rose.”

  2. ^

    “GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica”. Retrieved
    13 March

  3. ^

    Mabberley, D. J. (1997).

    The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants
    . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521414210.

  4. ^

    DeVore, M. L.; Pigg, K. B. (July 2007). “A brief review of the fossil history of the family Rosaceae with a focus on the Eocene Okanogan Highlands of eastern Washington State, USA, and British Columbia, Canada”.
    Found Systematics and Development.
    (1–2): 45–57. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0540-3. ISSN 0378-2697. S2CID 10169419.

  5. ^

    Kellner, A.; Benner, M.; Walther, H.; Kunzmann, L.; Wissemann, V.; Ritz, C. M. (March 2012). “Leaf Architecture of Extant Species of Rosa L. and the Paleogene Species Rosa lignitum Heer (Rosaceae)”.
    International Journal of Constitute Sciences.
    (3): 239–250. doi:10.1086/663965. ISSN 1058-5893. S2CID 83909271.

  6. ^

    “The History of Roses – Our Rose Garden – University of Illinois Extension”. Retrieved

  7. ^

    Tan, Jiongrui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Le; Yu, Chao; Xu, Tingliang; Wu, Yuying; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang (2017-11-13). “Genetic relationships and development of old Chinese garden roses based on SSRs and chromosome diversity – Scientific Reports”.
    Scientific Reports.
    (one): 15437. doi:ten.1038/s41598-017-15815-half dozen. PMC5684293. PMID 29133839.

  8. ^

    Leus, Leen; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan (2018). “Rose”. In Van Huylenbroeck, Johan (ed.).
    Ornamental Crops. Springer. p. 720. ISBN978-3319906973.

  9. ^

    Goody, Jack (1993).

    The Civilisation of Flowers
    . Cambridge University Printing.

  10. ^

    Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le (2013). “Genetics and genomics of bloom initiation and development in roses”.
    Periodical of Experimental Botany.
    (four): 847–857. doi:ten.1093/jxb/ers387. PMC3594942. PMID 23364936.

  11. ^

    “ADC Commercialisation bulletin #4: Fresh cut roses”
    FOODNET Uganda 2009. May fourteen, 2001. Archived from the original
    on 2012-06-xxx. Retrieved
    xiii March

  12. ^

    Nikbakht, Ali (2004). “A study on the relationships between Iranian people and Damask rose (Rosa damascena) and its therapeutic and healing properties”.
    The origin of Damask rose is the Middle Eastward and information technology is the national bloom of Iran. Rose oil usage dates back to aboriginal civilization of Persia. Avicenna, the 10th century Persian physician, distilled its petals for medical purposes and commercial distillery existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Persia.

    {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

  13. ^

    Stewart, D. (2005).
    The Chemical science Of Essential Oils Made Uncomplicated: God’s Honey Manifest In Molecules. Intendance. ISBN978-0-934426-99-2.

  14. ^




    Angier, Bradford (1974).
    Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 186. ISBN0-8117-0616-8. OCLC 799792.

  15. ^

    “Rose Hip Benefits”.
    . Retrieved
    17 January

  16. ^

    “Rosewater recipes – BBC Nutrient”. kingdom. Retrieved

  17. ^

    “Rose Flavored Ice Cream with Rose Petals”.

  18. ^

    Samanth Subramanian (27 Apr 2012). “Rooh Afza, the syrup that sweetens the subcontinent’s summers”.
    The National.

  19. ^

    “Leningrad Times – Google News Archive Search”.

  20. ^

    “rosepetal candy – Google Search”. kingdom.

  21. ^

    “More often than not Recognized every bit Safety (GRAS)”.
    Food and Drug Administration. half-dozen September 2019.

  22. ^

    “Electronic Lawmaking of Federal Regulations (eCFR)”.
    Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

  23. ^

    “Rosa chinensis China Rose PFAF Plant Database”. Retrieved
    13 March

  24. ^

    Oxford English language Dictionary
    (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.

    (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  25. ^





    Cyrino, Monica S. (2010).
    Aphrodite. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient Earth. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 63, 96. ISBN978-0-415-77523-half-dozen.

  26. ^








    Clark, Nora (2015).
    Aphrodite and Venus in Myth and Mimesis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 209–210. ISBN978-1-4438-7127-3.

  27. ^


  28. ^

    Ibycus, fragment 288.4

  29. ^

    Description of Greece

  30. ^

    “Rose Flower Meaning and Symbolism”. twenty July 2016.

  31. ^

    Lisa Cucciniello, “Rose to Rosary: The Flower of Venus in Catholicism” in
    Rose Lore: Essays in Semiotics and Cultural History
    (ed. Frankie Hutton: Lexington Books, 2008), pp. 64-65.

  32. ^

    Rose Lore, at pp. 65-67.

  33. ^

    Ugo Salvini “La rarissima Rosa di Trieste spezza l’oblio east rispunta a sorpresa sulle colline di Muggia” In: Il Piccolo 27.01.2021, La Rosa.

  34. ^

    “National Flower | The Rose”.

  35. ^

    “National Bloom of Usa – Fresh from the Grower”. Retrieved

External links

  • World Federation of Rose Societies
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
    Encyclopædia Britannica
    (11th ed.). Cambridge University Printing.