High Contrast Black And White Film

By | 22/08/2022

Developing To Control Dissimilarity With B&W Film

One advantage that blackness & white moving picture has over color film is that you can command image dissimilarity in B&W film past changing the developing time of the picture. This is a useful technique when photographing in loftier contrast scenes, every bit the examples below volition show you.

Example #1
(click images to come across a larger view)

Black and white photograph of a white house in harsh sunlight. The film was developed normally.

Kodak Tmax 400 film, exposed at EI-320 and developed for the normal developing fourth dimension of ten minutes in D-76 one+1 at 68 degrees (20C).

Black and white photograph of a white house in harsh sunlight. The film was given a shorter developing time to reduce contrast.

Kodak Tmax 400 picture show, exposed at EI-160 and developed for vii.5 minutes in D-76 1+1 at 68 degrees (20C). This is 25% less than the normal time.

This house was photographed on a sunny jump afternoon. The sunlight is harsh, casting deep shadows; and the white house ways the brightness range of the scene volition be fifty-fifty greater. The commonly adult example has too much contrast. Notice the deeply shadowed vegetation on the right side of the scene, which is also dark. In add-on, at that place is poor tonal separation within the hedge in front of the house, and at that place is not enough tonal separation betwixt the hedge and the grass.

The version that was given a shorter developing time has more than open shadows, and better tonal separation in nighttime tones and midtones. In addition, the white aluminum siding on the house is slightly less brilliant. If this firm had wooden siding, there would take been more texture and particular visible in the siding in the reduced-development version (aluminum siding is smooth and textureless).

Example #2
(click images to see a larger view)

Black and white photograph of a bungalow in harsh sunlight. The film was developed normally.

Kodak Tmax 400 film, exposed at EI-320 and developed for the normal developing time of x minutes in D-76 1+one at 68 degrees (20C).

Black and white photograph of a bungalow in harsh sunlight. The film was given a shorter developing time to reduce contrast.

Kodak Tmax 400 film, exposed at EI-160 and developed for 7.5 minutes in D-76 one+1 at 68 degrees (20C). This is 25% less than the normal time.

Like the first example, this house was photographed on a sunny bound afternoon. The sunlight is harsh, casting deep shadows. The covered porch is a lot darker than the sunlit parts of the firm. The usually developed instance has too much contrast.

The version that was given a shorter developing fourth dimension has more open up shadows, improving the tonality of the function of the house shaded by the porch overhang. It is hard to see it in the pocket-sized screen-sized images, but the sunlit areas of the white-painted wooden parts of the firm show more than texture and detail in the reduced-evolution version.

How It’south Done

The amount of reduction in developing time varies depending on the motion-picture show and programmer you are using, and can be anywhere from 20% to 30%. If you look at my Tested Developing Times, many of them show a Normal time and a time labeled “N-1.” This is the time you lot would utilise for that film and programmer combination to reduce contrast. If you do not see an Northward-ane time listed for the pic and developer combo that yous are using, endeavour a 25% reduction every bit a starting point.

Motion picture Speed

You lot volition notice that in my examples above, I shot the normally adult photographs at EI-320 (my normal exposure for Tmax 400 developed in D-76 1+1), just the reduced developing time versions were shot at EI-160. This gave the reduced development films 1 stop more exposure than the ordinarily adult film.

This is considering reducing the developing time as well causes a drop in the flick’s constructive speed. With nearly films and developers, the speed loss is about one stop; and then the normal procedure is to but ready your meter to a one finish lower film speed. Because of the speed loss, you must program to use development to control contrast when you actually shoot the photographs. If y’all expose at the normal film speed, so decide to reduce developing time afterward, your images will be underexposed.

If you are shooting on 35mm or 120 curl picture show, you must shoot the whole gyre in the same lighting conditions using the same reduced exposure index. Brand sure you marker the rolls after you lot shoot them then that you will know what developing treatment each requires when y’all get back dwelling house!

Tin can You Accommodate Dissimilarity Without Changing Film Developing?

Yep, it is possible to do and so. If you scan your moving picture, you can dispense the exposure using curves in Photoshop to open up night shadows and bring down overly-bright light tones. If you print in the darkroom on traditional photo paper, yous can use a lower-contrast paper (or alower-grade contrast filter with variable-contrast paper). In both Photoshop and the darkroom, farther aligning can be done through dodging and burning (selectively concealment or lightening parts of the paradigm without affecting other areas).

Although you can apply a normally-developed negative and accommodate the dissimilarity in the darkroom or in Photoshop, it is much easier to piece of work with a negative whose developing has been tailored to the scene contrast. It is ever better to start with the best negative possible because it is a lot more work to go a good image from a film that has too much contrast, and the image quality will ultimately exist better from the properly-developed movie.

Tin can You Increment Dissimilarity?

Aye, y’all can increment dissimilarity by using a developing time that is longer than normal. In the real world, this is probably something you will never want to exercise if you are aiming for a realistic rendering of the subject. Information technology is far more common to encounter lighting conditions that work with normal developing or that require reduced developing. In the xxx years I have been shooting blackness and white film and developing it, I take never once needed to increase developing time to increment contrast.

Some photographers like very high dissimilarity renderings, which is a valid artistic decision. If y’all want more contrast, I recommend increasing developing time by 25% (multiply normal developing time by 1.25) for Kodak Tmax 100 and Tmax 400, and Ilford Delta 100 and Delta 400 films. For other films, increase developing time past 50% (multiply normal developing time by 1.five).
Tmax and Delta films build dissimilarity faster than other B&Westward films.

Increasing developing times will not take every bit much impact on the pic’s constructive speed as reduced developing times do. With well-nigh films, you’ll encounter no more than a
13
terminate increase in the picture’s effective speed. I recommend either shooting at the normal speed that yous would use for that moving picture and developer combination or increasing the exposure index by
13
terminate. Then, for example, a film you ordinarily shoot at EI-320 would exist shot at EI-400 and a moving picture unremarkably shot at EI-100 would be shot at EI-125 when using a longer developing time.

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Source: https://crawfordphotoschool.com/film/developing-contrast.php