is the use of camera movements that alter the orientation or position of the lens with respect to the picture show or image sensor on cameras.
Sometimes the term is used when a large depth of field is imitation with digital mail service-processing; the name may derive from a perspective control lens (or tilt–shift lens) unremarkably required when the effect is produced optically.
“Tilt–shift” encompasses 2 different types of movements: rotation of the lens airplane relative to the image plane, called
tilt, and movement of the lens parallel to the paradigm plane, chosen
Tilt is used to control the orientation of the aeroplane of focus (PoF), and hence the part of an image that appears precipitous; information technology makes use of the Scheimpflug principle. Shift is used to arrange the position of the subject in the image surface area without moving the photographic camera back; this is oft helpful in avoiding the convergence of parallel lines, as when photographing tall buildings.
History and employ
Movements take been available on view cameras since the early on days of photography; they have been available on smaller-format cameras since the early 1960s, usually by ways of special lenses or adapters. Nikon introduced a lens providing shift movements for their 35 mm SLR cameras in 1962,[i]
and Canon introduced a lens that provided both tilt and shift movements in 1973;
many other manufacturers before long followed arrange. Canon and Nikon currently offer four lenses that provide both movements.
Such lenses are frequently used in architectural photography to control perspective, and in landscape photography to get an unabridged scene sharp.
Some photographers have popularized the utilize of tilt for selective focus in applications such as portrait photography. The selective focus that tin be achieved by tilting the airplane of focus is ofttimes compelling because the event is different from that to which many viewers have become accustomed. Ben Thomas, Walter Iooss Jr. of
Sports Illustrated, Vincent Laforet and many other photographers take used this technique.
In photography, a
allows the lensman to command the appearance of perspective in the image; the lens can be moved parallel to the film or sensor, providing the equivalent of corresponding view camera movements. This movement of the lens allows adjusting the position of the subject in the image area without moving the camera back; it is often used to avoid convergence of parallel lines, such every bit when photographing a tall building. A lens that provides merely shift is chosen a
shift lens, while those that can also tilt are called
tilt–shift lenses. The terms
are also used by some manufacturers to refer to this type of lens.
Curt-focus perspective-command (PC) lenses (i.e., 17 mm through 35 mm) are used mostly in architectural photography; longer focal lengths may also be used in other applications such every bit mural, product, and closeup photography. PC lenses are generally designed for single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras, every bit rangefinder cameras do not permit the photographer to directly view the effect of the lens, and view cameras let for perspective command using camera movements.
A PC lens has a larger image circle than is required to cover the prototype surface area (motion picture or sensor size). Typically, the paradigm circumvolve is large enough, and the mechanics of the lens sufficiently limited, that the epitome area cannot be shifted outside of the paradigm circumvolve. Notwithstanding, many PC lenses require a small-scale aperture setting to forbid vignetting when significant shifts are employed. PC lenses for 35 mm cameras typically offering a maximum shift of 11 mm; some newer models offer a maximum shift of 12 mm.
The mathematics involved in tilt lenses are described as the Scheimpflug principle, afterwards an Austrian military officeholder who adult the technique for correcting distortion in aerial photographs.
The beginning PC lens manufactured for an SLR camera in any format was Nikon’s 1961
f/3.five 35 mm PC-Nikkor; it was followed by an
f/2.viii 35 mm PC-Nikkor (1968), an
f/iv 28 mm PC-Nikkor (1975), and an
f/3.5 28 mm PC-Nikkor (1981).
In 1973, Catechism introduced a lens, the TS 35 mm
with tilt as well as shift functions.
Other manufacturers, including Venus Optics Laowa, Olympus, Pentax, Schneider Kreuznach (produced as well for Leica), and Minolta, fabricated their own versions of PC lenses. Olympus produced 35 mm and 24 mm shift lenses. Canon currently offers 17 mm, 24 mm, 50 mm, 100 mm and 135 mm tilt/shift lenses. Nikon currently offers 19 mm, 24 mm, 45 mm, and 85 mm PC lenses with tilt and shift capability. Venus Eyes Laowa offers the world’s widest 15mm shift lens with an extremely good optical distortion control.
When the camera back is parallel to a planar subject (such as the forepart of a building), all points in the subject area are at the same distance from the camera, and are recorded at the same magnification. The shape of the subject is recorded without distortion. When the prototype airplane is non parallel to the subject area, as when pointing the photographic camera upwardly at a tall edifice, parts of the subject area are at varying distances from the camera; the more distant parts are recorded at lesser magnification, causing the convergence of parallel lines.
Considering the subject is at an angle to the photographic camera, it is also foreshortened.
When the camera dorsum is not parallel to a planar subject, it is not possible to have the entire subject in focus without the use of tilt or swing; consequently, the prototype must rely on the depth of field to have the unabridged subject rendered passably sharp.
With a PC lens, the camera dorsum can be kept parallel to the discipline while the lens is moved to achieve the desired positioning of the discipline in the image expanse. All points in the subject area remain at the same altitude from the camera, and the subject field shape is preserved. If desired, the photographic camera back tin can be rotated away from parallel to the subject, to allow some convergence of parallel lines or fifty-fifty to increase the convergence. Again, the position of the bailiwick in the image expanse is adapted by moving the lens.[vi]
The earliest perspective control and tilt–shift lenses for 35 mm format were 35 mm focal length, which is at present considered also long for many architectural photography applications. With advances in optical blueprint, lenses of 28 mm and then 24 mm became bachelor and were chop-chop adopted by photographers working in close proximity to their subjects, such as in urban settings.
The Arri motion-moving-picture show photographic camera company offers a shift and tilt bellows system that provides movements for PL-mountain lenses on motion-picture cameras.
Canon currently offers v lenses with tilt and shift functions: the TS-Eastward 17 mm
f/4, the TS-E 24 mm
f/iii.5L Ii, the TS-E 50mm f/2.8L MACRO, the TS-Due east 90 mm
f/two.8L MACRO, and the TS-E 135 mm f/4L MACRO. The lenses are supplied with the tilt and shift movements at right angles to each other; they can exist modified so that the movements operate in the aforementioned management. Canon filed a patent in 2016 for an autofocus arrangement for use in a Tilt-Shift lens, simply has not withal released such a lens as of 2022.
The 17 mm and the 24 mm version Two lenses allow independent rotation of the tilt and shift movements. The 50 mm, the 90 mm and the 135 mm providing macro adequacy of 0.five×, with extension tube some up to 1.0×. All 5 lenses provide automatic aperture control.
Laowa released the 15mm f/four.five Shift-only lens in 2020. With the +/-11mm shift movement, it is currently the widest shift lens ever made for full frame cameras and mounts for all major camera brands are available.
Hartblei makes tilt-and-shift lenses to fit various manufacturers’ camera bodies. It currently offers four Super-Rotator Tilt/Shift lenses for 35 mm bodies: the TS-PC Hartblei 35 mm
f/ii.viii, the TS-PC Hartblei 65 mm
f/3.v, the TS-PC Hartblei 80 mm
f/2.8, and the TS-PC Hartblei 120 mm
f/2.8. It also offers the TS-PC Hartblei 45 mm
f/iii.five to fit several medium-format camera bodies. The tilt and shift movements can be independently rotated in any direction.
Hasselblad offers a tilt-and-shift adapter, the HTS 1.5, for use with the HCD 28 mm
f/iv, HC 35 mm
f/3.v, HC l mm
f/iii.five, HC 80 mm
f/2.8 and HC 100 mm
f/2.two lenses on H-Arrangement cameras. To let infinity focus, the adapter includes optics that multiply the lens focal lengths by i.5. Autofocus and focus confirmation are disabled when using the adapter.
Leica is currently providing the TS-APO-ELMAR-S 1:5,vi/120 mm ASPH lens for its new S-System of digital SLRs.[viii]
Minolta offered the 35mm
f/two.viii Shift CA lens for its manual focus SR-mountain cameras in the 1970s and 1980s. The lens was unique amongst perspective-control lenses in that, rather than offer a combination of tilt-and-shift, Minolta designed the lens with variable field curvature, which could make the field of focus either convex or concave (essentially a three-dimensional, spherical grade of tilt).
Nikon offers several PC lenses, all of which feature tilt and shift functions: a new (Oct. 2016) PC-E Nikkor 19mm
f/4.0 ED lens, a PC-Eastward Nikkor 24 mm
f/iii.5D ED lens, PC-Eastward Micro-Nikkor 45 mm
f/2.8D ED, and PC-E Micro Nikkor 85 mm
f/two.8D ED. The 45 mm and 85 mm “Micro” lenses offer close focus (0.5 magnification) for macrophotography. In 2016, Nikon added the PC NIKKOR 19mm f/4E ED actress wide angle view lens with a magnification cistron of 0.18 and 25 cm focus distance. The PC-E lenses offering automatic discontinuity control with the Nikon D3, D300, and D700 cameras. With some before photographic camera models, a PC-E lens operates like a regular Nikon PC (not-E) lens, with preset aperture control by means of a pushbutton; with other before models, no discontinuity control is provided, and the lens is non usable.[eleven]
The mechanisms providing the tilt and shift functions can be rotated 90° to the left or right and so that they operate horizontally, vertically, or at intermediate orientations. The lenses are supplied with the tilt and shift movements at right angles to each other; they can exist modified by Nikon then that the movements operate in the aforementioned direction.
In Pentax high-cease DSLRs (Thou-seven, K-five, K-5 II, Thousand-5 IIs and 1000-xxx) the shake reduction hardware unit can be manually adjusted in the X/Y direction to achieve a shift consequence with any lens using the Composition Adjust function in the carte system.
Although bachelor for whatever lens that fits the photographic camera torso, this adjustment can non fully replace regular shift lenses equally those may provide a larger shift move.
Schneider-Kreuznach offers the PC-Super Angulon 28 mm
f/2.8 lens that provides shift movements, with preset discontinuity command. The lens is available with mounts to fit cameras by various manufacturers, and as well with 42 mm spiral mount.
The Sinar arTec photographic camera offers tilt and shift with the total range of Sinaron digital lenses.
All perspective-command and tilt–shift lenses are manual-focus prime lenses, but are quite expensive compared to regular prime number lenses. Some medium format photographic camera makers, such as Mamiya, have addressed this problem by offer shift adapters that work with the maker’s other prime lenses.
In 2013, Samyang Optics introduced one of the cheapest today tilt–shift lenses, the Samyang T-S 24mm f/three.5 ED AS UMC, which tin tilt up to eight.5 degrees and shift upwards to 12mm of axis.
ARAX introduced a 35 mm f/two.8 and an 80 mm f/ii.viii tilt–shift lens, which are available for several camera mounts. Both lenses retail for less than the Samyang T-S 24mm. ARAX too produces a 50 mm f/2.viii tilt–shift lens for Micro four/3 and Sony NEX mounts.[
Most SLR cameras provide
automated discontinuity command, which allows viewing and metering at the lens’s maximum aperture, stops the lens downwardly to the working aperture during exposure, and returns the lens to maximum discontinuity subsequently exposure. For perspective-control and tilt–shift lenses, the mechanical linkage is impractical, and automated aperture control was non offered on the starting time such lenses. Many PC and TS lenses incorporated a characteristic known as a “preset” aperture, which lets the photographer set the lens to working discontinuity, and then quickly switch betwixt working discontinuity and full aperture without looking at the discontinuity control. Though slightly easier than stopped-down metering, operation is less user-friendly than automatic operation.
When Canon introduced its EOS line of cameras in 1987, the EF lenses incorporated electromagnetic diaphragms, eliminating the need for a mechanical linkage between the camera and the diaphragm. Because of this, the Canon TS-E tilt–shift lenses include automatic aperture command.
In 2008, Nikon introduced its PC-Due east perspective-control lenses with electromagnetic diaphragms. Automated aperture control is provided with the D300, D500, D600/610, D700, D750, D800/810, D3, D4 and D5 cameras. With some earlier cameras, the lenses offering preset aperture control by means of a pushbutton that controls the electromagnetic diaphragm; with other earlier cameras, no discontinuity control is provided, and the lenses are not usable.
A camera lens tin provide sharp focus on simply a single plane. Without tilt, the prototype aeroplane (containing the pic or paradigm sensor), the lens plane, and the plane of focus are parallel, and are perpendicular to the lens axis; objects in sharp focus are all at the same distance from the photographic camera. When the lens plane is tilted relative to the image plane, the airplane of focus (PoF) is at an angle to the image airplane, and objects at different distances from the camera tin all exist sharply focused if they lie in the aforementioned plane. With the lens tilted, the image plane, lens airplane, and PoF intersect at a common line;
this behavior has become known as the Scheimpflug principle. When focus is adjusted with a tilted lens, the PoF rotates about an axis at the intersection of the lens’southward forepart focal aeroplane and a plane through the eye of the lens parallel to the paradigm plane; the tilt determines the distance from the centrality of rotation to the center of the lens, and the focus determines the angle of the PoF with the image plane. In combination, the tilt and focus decide the position of the PoF.
The PoF can also exist oriented so that simply a small part of it passes through the subject, producing a very shallow region of sharpness, and the effect is quite unlike from that obtained simply by using a large aperture with a regular camera.
Using tilt changes the shape of the depth of field (DoF). When the lens and image planes are parallel, the DoF extends between parallel planes on either side of the PoF. With tilt or swing, the DoF is wedge shaped, with the apex of the wedge near the camera, as shown in Effigy 5 in the Scheimpflug principle article. The DoF is naught at the apex, remains shallow at the edge of the lens’s field of view, and increases with distance from the camera. For a given position of the PoF, the bending betwixt the planes that define the near and far limits of DoF (i.e., the angular DoF) increases with lens
f-number; for a given
f-number and angle of the PoF, the angular DoF decreases with increasing tilt. When it is desired to take an entire scene sharp, equally in landscape photography, the best results are often achieved with a relatively pocket-sized corporeality of tilt. When the objective is selective focus, a large amount of tilt tin can exist used to give a very small angular DoF; notwithstanding, the tilt fixes the position of the PoF rotation axis, so if tilt is used to control the DoF, information technology may not exist possible to also have the PoF laissez passer through all desired points.
View camera users usually distinguish between rotating the lens well-nigh a horizontal axis (tilt), and rotation about a vertical centrality (swing); modest- and medium-format photographic camera users ofttimes refer to either rotation as “tilt”.
If a subject plane is parallel to the image plane, parallel lines in the subject remain parallel in the image. If the image plane is not parallel to the subject, as when pointing a camera upward to photograph a tall building, parallel lines converge, and the issue sometimes appears unnatural, such as a building that appears to be leaning backwards.
Shift is a displacement of the lens parallel to the image plane that allows adjusting the position of the field of study in the image area without changing the camera angle; in effect the camera tin exist aimed with the shift movement.
Shift tin can be used to proceed the image plane (and thus focus) parallel to the field of study; information technology can exist used to photograph a tall building while keeping the sides of the building parallel. The lens can besides be shifted in the opposite management and the camera tilted up to accentuate the convergence for artistic issue.
Shifting a lens allows dissimilar portions of the image circle to be cast onto the image plane, similar to cropping an area along the border of an image.
Again, view camera users usually distinguish between vertical movements (rise
fall) and lateral movements (shift or
cross), while small- and medium-format users often refer to both types of movements as “shift”.
Lens image circle
Whereas the image circle of a standard lens usually merely covers the image frame, a lens that provides tilt or shift must allow for displacement of the lens axis from the center of the prototype frame, and consequently requires a larger epitome circumvolve than a standard lens of the same focal length.
Applying camera movements
On a view camera, the tilt and shift movements are inherent in the photographic camera, and many view cameras allow a considerable range of adjustment of both the lens and the photographic camera back. Applying movements on a pocket-size- or medium-format camera unremarkably requires a tilt–shift lens or perspective control lens. The quondam allows tilt, shift, or both; the latter allows only shift. With a tilt–shift lens, adjustments are available but for the lens, and the range is normally more limited.
Tilt–shift and perspective-command lenses are available for many SLR cameras, just most are far more expensive than comparable lenses without movements. The Lensbaby SLR lens is a low-cost alternative for providing tilt and swing for many SLR cameras, although the effect is somewhat different from that of the lenses just described. Considering of the elementary optical pattern, in that location is significant curvature of field,
and sharp focus is express to a region near the lens axis. Consequently, the Lensbaby’due south primary application is selective focus and toy camera–fashion photography.
Selective focus can exist used to direct the viewer’s attention to a small part of the image while de-emphasizing other parts.
With tilt, the effect is unlike from that obtained by using a large
f-number without tilt. With a regular camera, the PoF and the DoF are perpendicular to the line of sight; with tilt, the PoF tin be about parallel to the line of sight, and the DoF tin be very narrow only extend to infinity. Thus parts of a scene at greatly different distances from the photographic camera can be rendered sharp, and selective focus can be given to different parts of a scene at the aforementioned distance from the camera.[xviii]
With tilt, the depth of field is wedge shaped. Every bit noted to a higher place, using a big corporeality of tilt and a small
f-number gives a pocket-sized angular DoF. This tin be useful if the objective is to provide selective focus to unlike objects at essentially the aforementioned altitude from the photographic camera. But in many cases, effective apply of tilt for selective focus requires a careful option of what is sharp besides as what is unsharp, equally Vincent Laforet has noted.
Considering the tilt besides affects the position of the PoF, information technology may not be possible to use a big amount of tilt and have the PoF pass through all desired points. This may not be a problem if but i point is to be sharp; for instance, if it is desired to emphasize one building in a row of buildings, the tilt and
f-number can exist used to command the width of the precipitous area, and the focus used to determine which building is precipitous. But if information technology is desired to take two or more points sharp (for example, two people at different distances from the photographic camera), the PoF must include both points, and it commonly is not possible to achieve this while also using the tilt to control DoF.
Selective focus using tilt appears in move pictures such equally
Minority Report, (2002). Managing director of photography Janusz Kamiński says he prefers using tilt–shift lenses to digital mail service-product as too much digital can detract and “It doesn’t look organic.”
Selective focus via tilt is often used to simulate a miniature scene,
and so much that “tilt-and-shift effect” has been used equally a general term for some miniature faking techniques.
Basic digital mail-processing techniques can requite results similar to those achieved with tilt, and afford greater flexibility and control, such as choosing the region that is sharp and the corporeality of blur for the unsharp regions.
Moreover, these choices can be made after the photograph is taken. One advanced technique, Smallgantics, is used for movement-pictures; information technology was first seen in the 2006 Thom Yorke music video “Harrowdown Hill”, directed by Chel White. Artist Olivo Barbieri is well known for his miniature-faking skills in the 1990s.
Creative person Ben Thomas’s serial Cityshrinker extended this concept to miniature faking major cities effectually the world, his volume
Tiny Tokyo: The Big City Made Mini
(Chronicle Books, 2014),
depicts Tokyo in miniature.
When making photographs of a building or other large structure from the ground, perspective can be eliminated by keeping the movie airplane parallel to the building. With ordinary lenses, this results in capturing only the bottom office of the discipline.
Tilting the photographic camera upwards results in a perspective effect that causes the top of the building to appear smaller than its base, which is often considered undesirable. The perspective upshot is proportional to the lens’s angle of view.
With a perspective control lens, nonetheless, the lens may be shifted upwards in relation to the image surface area, placing more than of the subject inside the frame. The ground level, the camera’southward betoken of perspective, is shifted towards the bottom of the frame.
Another apply of shifting is in taking pictures of a mirror. By moving the camera off to one side of the mirror, and shifting the lens in the contrary direction, an image of the mirror can exist captured without the reflection of the camera or photographer. Shifting can similarly exist used to photograph “around” an object, such equally a building support in a gallery, without producing an plainly oblique view.
Perspective-control in software
Computer software (such as Photoshop’south
functions) tin can be used to control perspective effects in post-product. Withal, this technique does not permit the recovery of lost resolution in the more distant areas of the bailiwick, or the recovery of lost depth of field due to the angle of the movie/sensor aeroplane to the subject. Areas of the image enlarged past these digital techniques may suffer from the visual furnishings of pixel interpolation, depending on the original image resolution, degree of manipulation, print/display size, and viewing distance.
The effect of using tilt or swing movements is less easily accomplished in postal service-production. If every part of the epitome is within the depth of field, it is fairly piece of cake to simulate the upshot of shallow depth of field that could exist achieved past using tilt or swing;
all the same, if the image has a finite depth of field, mail-product cannot simulate the sharpness that could be accomplished by using tilt or swing to maximize the region of sharpness.
Gallery of perspective command lenses
Olympus 24 mm
f/three.5 Zuiko-Shift. 10 mm maximum shift. Mounted on an Olympus camera.
Minolta 35 mm
f/2.8 shift. xi mm maximum shift.
Schneider 35 mm
f/4 PA-Curtagon. 7 mm maximum shift. Also rebadged past Leica.
Pentax Shift 28 mm
f/ii.viii SMC lens.
Pentax-mount Arax 35 mm f/ii.8 TS at max tilt and no shift.
See as well
- Brenizer Method
- Canon TS-E 24mm lens
- Lensbaby, some other type of movable lens
- Nikon PC-Due east Nikkor 24mm f/3.5D ED
- Tilted aeroplane focus
- View photographic camera, a photographic camera type that allows tilt and shift control
Sato, Haruo. “Tale Seventeen : PC-Nikkor 28 mm f/4”. Nikon Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved
“TS 35 mm
Canon Photographic camera Museum.
“Camera Lenses – All NIKKOR Lenses for Digital SLR Cameras- Nikon”.
“Tale Seventeen : PC-Nikkor 28 mm f/four”. Nikon Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28.
Ray 2000, 171.
Ray 2000, 172.
“Optical command apparatus, optical apparatus, and storage medium for storing optical control programme”.
https://de.leica-camera.com/Fotografie/Leica-S/Leica-Southward-Objektive/TS-APO-Elmar-Due south-ane-5,6-120-mm-ASPH LEICA TS-APO-ELMAR-S i:v,half-dozen/120 mmASPH. Tilt und Shift
“Minolta MF FAQ: Lenses”.
www.sds.com. Archived from the original on 2001-03-06.
PC-E Nikkor 24 mm f/3.5D ED User’s Transmission, 7MAA49C2-02, p. 21. Nikon Corporation.
“Pentax K-5 User’due south Manual”, p. 220, Pentax Ricoh Imaging Corporation.
“Samyang T-Southward 24mm f/three.five ED As UMC Lens Review”. Retrieved
Stroebel, Leslie (1976).
View Photographic camera Technique
(3rd ed.). London: Focal Press. p. 28. ISBN978-0-240-50901-3.
Wilson, Andrew (ane May 2006). “Shift/tilt lenses bring new perspectives”. Vision Systems Design. Retrieved
Bond, Howard (May–June 1998). “Setting Upwardly the View Camera”.
Photo Techniques: 41–45.
A transcription is bachelor on the Large Format Folio.
Is the Lensbaby like a tilt–shift lens?
“Interview: Vincent Laforet”. Canon United states of america, Inc. Retrieved
Kaminski, Janusz (two April 2010). “Janusz Kaminski on
The Diving Bong and the Butterfly“. MovieMaker. Retrieved
Segal, David (7 February 2007). “Can Photographers Exist Plagiarists?”. Slate. Retrieved
Rodrigues, Vailancio (16 Nov 2008). “50 Beautiful Examples of Tilt–Shift Photography”.
Baryshnikov, Evgeniy (10 January 2012). “More than threescore Examples of Miniature Faking Photography Created Using Tilt–Shift Generator Software”. Retrieved
Held, R. T.; Cooper, E. A.; O’Brien, J. F.; Banks, Yard. Southward. (March 2010). “Using mistiness to impact perceived distance and size”
ACM Transactions on Graphics.
(2): xix:11. doi:ten.1145/1731047.1731057. ISSN 0730-0301. PMC3088122. PMID 21552429. Retrieved
“TiltShift Event Generator”. FaceGarage. 30 November 2014. Retrieved
Fergusson, WM (9 Dec 2007). “Fake Tilt–Shift Photography”.
Thomas, Ben (ten April 2014). “Tiny Tokyo; The Big City Made Mini”. Retrieved
- Ray, Sidney F. 2000. The geometry of image formation. In
The Manual of Photography: Photographic and Digital Imaging, 9th ed. Ed. Ralph E. Jacobson, Sidney F. Ray, Geoffrey G. Atteridge, and Norman R. Axford. Oxford: Focal Printing. ISBN 0-240-51574-9
- Major Cities of the World in tilt–shift by Ben Thomas, projection Cityshrinker
- About Canon’s Tilt–Shift Lens – Utilizing the shift characteristic on a Catechism broad-angle tilt–shift lens
- Tilt–Shift Software Photoscape Tutorial – Simple Photoscape tutorial to stimulate imitation tilt–shift furnishings
- Examples of Tilt–Shift Photography
- What is perspective correction?
- How Shift Lenses Alter your Life
- History of the PC-Nikkor lens
- Education manual for 35 mm PC-Nikkor lens
- Perspective Control (Shift Lenses) in Architectural Photography
- Perspective Control (Tilt/Shift range) Architectural View Photographic camera
- Using the 35 mm Perspective Control Lens
- Lexicon of Picture and Photography:
Perspective control (PC) lens
- Using a perspective control lens (shift lens)
- Tutorial: Perspective Command Lenses
- Tilt–shift lens pick and departure
- Perspective Correction Using Software
- Page of Links to Galleries and Information on Tilt–Shift Photography and Lenses
- Sinar arTec camera with tilt and shift
- Rokinon 24 mm shift lens