Beginner Astrophotography: How to Get Started
If y’all’re interested in capturing photos of the night sky, these beginner astrophotography tips will guide you lot on your mode. I’ll explain how to accept your very offset photograph of the stars, the Milky way, and even deep-sky galaxies, nebulae, and star clusters.
There are many dissimilar types of astrophotography, from wide-angle Milky Way photography to deep-sky photography through an astronomical telescope. The basic elements of this hobby include the understanding of long exposure images, focus, and image processing.
The Andromeda Galaxy captured using a DSLR Camera and Small-scale Telescope.
The following bones astrophotography tips and camera settings tin put into activeness the next time you discover yourself nether a clear night sky with your photographic camera. I’ll also evidence yous a beginner astrophotography setup for capturing deep-heaven images using a photographic camera and telescope.
If I can do information technology, you can do information technology too.
Perhaps the intense colors of the
or the glimmering Pleiades star cluster take sparked your involvement in astrophotography. Or maybe a haunting landscape photograph dominated by a full moon is more than your style. However you lot got hither, I empathise your passion.
Night sky photography requires a basic understanding of your camera’south ISO setting and the process of taking long-exposure images. If you lot are a beginner, I’ve got good news. With an entry-level DSLR camera and a tripod, starry landscapes like the one below are
within your achieve.
A starry nighttime mural astrophoto captured using a DSLR camera and lens on a tripod.
The photo above did not use a telescope to capture the scene. Instead, a wide-angle camera lens was used to properly expose the picture and showcase the colorful stars in the nighttime sky. If you’re interested in capturing “starscape” style images similar this, have a expect at my
tiptop 7 astrophotography tips
Astrophotography can come up in many different forms. It is wise to choose your subject matter based on the camera equipment you currently ain. Setting your expectations to what’s possible with your personal gear will help you stay motivated and learn what’s needed to take the next step.
My astrophotography equipment has evolved and expanded over the by 8 years, and the learning process never ends. The small milestones and gradual progress along the way are what motivates me to proceed pushing frontward.
There are simple ways to go started in astrophotography that don’t require a big investment of time or money.
For instance, with a basic DSLR camera and a tripod, landscape images of the Milky Style and the Planets are well within your reach. Whether you lot’re shooting a lunar eclipse, meteor shower, or a familiar constellation of stars, the sensitivity, and control of modern photographic camera sensors are well suited for astronomical imaging.
Astrophotography images captured using camera lenses of varying focal lengths.
When you are gear up to take your passion farther, I’ll explicate how to employ a photographic camera and telescope to have deep-sky images of galaxies and nebulae. This includes sharing my knowledge on camera control software, autoguiding, paradigm processing, and much more.
The backyard setup shown beneath may seem a little complex at commencement, but it did not happen overnight. If y’all are passionate almost astronomy and photographing objects in space, your progression and enjoyment in the hobby of astrophotography will concluding a lifetime.
Beginner Astrophotography Tips
Nosotros all take to get-go somewhere.
If your passion is strong enough, it volition carry you through the steep learning bend involved in astrophotography. Early on, I did not accept a lot of money to invest in this hobby, and my basic equipment reflected that.
One look at a typical
deep-heaven imaging setup
may have you scratching your head. The good news is that you can slowly build your astrophotography kit to accomplish your goals over time.
Choosing a camera, telescope, and an equatorial mountain will deliver the results you’re looking for takes time. Avert the temptation of purchasing the best equipment coin can buy from the starting time. First,
you need to first learn the night sky
– and the basic principles of night sky photography.
For regular updates on my progress, and all of my all-time astrophotography tips, delight
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A beginner telescope
I started with niggling more than a digital camera and a small (non-tracking)
beginner telescope. A Dobsonian reflector is a fantastic way to acquire the night sky from your location, and begin to appreciate the scale and vastness of space. It requires that you lot manually move the telescope past manus, and observe the deep-sky objects you observe in the eyepiece.
Over time, my equipment evolved into a deep-sky astrophotography kit that allows me to photograph galaxies, nebulae are star clusters. A tracking telescope mount and
are required, but I advise that you take small steps towards your goal of deep-sky imaging.
A visual astronomy telescope is what sparked my passion to photograph deep-sky objects, and helped me to better understand what it’s similar to spend a lot of time under the nighttime sky. I highly propose taking this road before jumping into astrophotography also fast.
The last thing you lot want to do is rush into making a buy that you regret. Beneath, I volition depict the gear that has provided me with bodily results for a reasonable cost. For a look at my near recent equipment in activity, subscribe to AstroBackyard on YouTube.
Using a DSLR and telescope allows you to take high magnification images of jaw-dropping subjects such as the
Eagle Nebula. Beginners often enquire me how I got started in deep-sky astrophotography with a telescope, and what equipment I use to take photos of the night heaven.
In the video below, I walk you through the process of capturing deep-sky astrophotography images using a DSLR and telescope. It’s a high-level overview of the processes involved but should reply many of the questions beginners have about astrophotography.
Cull an Surface area of Interest
I try to cover all aspects of astrophotography on this blog, but subscribers of my YouTube channel know that I spend more than time imaging through a telescope than annihilation else. Some people adopt different areas of astronomy including Solar imaging or Galaxy landscapes.
It’south no secret, deep-sky astrophotography is the realm of this hobby where I spend virtually of my fourth dimension. There is just something incredible well-nigh the thought of photographing another milky way, filled with its own solar systems and planets.
What type of astrophotography are you near interested in?
The constellation Perseus rising over the lake with the
If y’all’re similar me, yous love all types of images that involve the night sky. However, a quest for a particular type of paradigm may atomic number 82 you downward a new path that involves a new set of equipment and techniques. For instance, the photography equipment required to capture a photo of a
is very dissimilar than what’s needed for a long exposure image of an emission nebula.
The image below features a deep-sky astrophotography setup, including a defended astronomy camera and a complete
system. The 3 keys to a successful deep-sky imaging run is accurate
polar alignment, tracking accuracy, and balance.
A bones deep-sky astrophotography setup using a defended astronomy camera.
The post-obit is a listing of the dissimilar categories y’all tin can dive into:
Types of Astrophotography
Let’due south cover the different types of astrophotography that await y’all. The night heaven is diverse, it’s full of billions of stars and some incredible treasures in between. The type of astronomy subject yous are interested in will somewhen determine which equipment you purchase, and the camera settings you will utilise.
Types of astrophotography include landscape, planetary, and deep-sky.
Some methods have a lower cost of entry and can be done with fiddling more than a beginner DSLR camera on a tripod, while others will require some boosted hardware to accomplish results. The photo in a higher place features images I accept taken from both a tripod and through a telescope.
DSLR Photographic camera and lens on Stationary Tripod:
Nighttime mural photography is incredibly popular these days. Most images tagged #astrophotography on
are exactly this. Whether it’s a shot of the Milky Way ascension over a desert landscape, or but a portrait of the Wintertime constellations, few images capture the mood that a night landscape can.
- Nighttime Sky Time Lapse
- Shooting star Shower Blended
- Milky Way Photography
- Constellation Composite
- Moon Phase Landscape
DSLR Camera and Lens on Tracking Mountain:
This is mural astrophotography on another level. A wide-angle lens such as the
Rokinon 14mm F/2.8
can collect light over an ultra-wide area of the dark sky. With a tracking mount, exposures of 1 minute or more than are possible, which means collecting a much deeper view of the sky.
- Deep Milky Fashion Photograph
- Wide Field Deep-Heaven Prototype
- Solar Transit (Solar Filter)
- Solar Eclipse (Solar Filter)
- Total Lunar Eclipse
Beginners often get-go with a small
for wide-angle astrophotography images. Entry-level camera mounts such equally the iOptron SkyTracker Pro, or Heaven-Watcher Star Adventurer are a peachy identify to start. This opens the doors to long exposure photos that include deep-heaven objects such as galaxies and nebulae.
A portable photographic camera tracker is quick to set up, and like shooting fish in a barrel to polar align and residuum. The setup below features a
Heaven-Watcher Star Adventurer Pro
mount, with a small-scale telescope attached. This is a very capable little rig that can produce stunning astrophotos using a DSLR camera and lens.
A beginner-level astrophotography mountain with a DSLR camera and lens attached.
A mid-range telephoto lens similar the
Rokinon 135mm F/2
is an excellent option for a setup like this. In the photo above, you tin run across this lens mounted to a Star Adventurer Pro using the ball head adapter. This way, you tin point the photographic camera in whichever direction you want for long exposure imaging.
Point and Shoot Photographic camera through Telescope Eyepiece:
Eyepiece projection astrophotography involves aligning the camera lens with a telescope eyepiece, to utilize the magnification of the eyepiece and or/Barlow lens. This method is useful for
planetary astrophotography, just non deep-sky imaging.
- Solar Transit (Solar Filter)
- Planetary Imaging
- Solar Imaging (Solar Filter)
- Moon Surface Imaging
DSLR Camera attached to Telescope on Tracking Mount:
This is known every bit
prime-focus astrophotography. The camera is
to the telescope focus draw-tube. The focal length is adamant by the type and size of the telescope optical design.
- Deep Sky Imaging (Galaxies, Nebulae, Star Clusters)
- Planetary Imaging
- Solar Imaging
- Detailed Moon Surface Imaging
A DSLR camera fastened to a telescope for prime focus astrophotography.
Astrophotography covers a wide diverseness of styles and photography subjects. The type of image y’all’re after is upwardly to you. We all have our own goals and unique taste. Personally,
deep-heaven astrophotography through a telescope
is my biggest passion.
As time passes, I discover myself becoming more and more than interested in other types of astrophotography as well. For example, starry sky landscape images (nightscape photography) are becoming increasingly pop on social media, and I beloved the idea of traveling to nighttime skies for an unforgettable night sky photo.
How I got started
My very first steps towards deep-sky imaging were taking 15-second exposures with a Canon point-and-shoot camera through a Dobsonian Telescope. I believe a manual telescope like this is the best way to learn the night sky, and become a better agreement of the hobby.
I consider an eight″ Dobsonian telescope like the Apertura AD8 to be the
best telescope for beginners. It’south how I got started, and why I still love astronomy today.
The Apertura AD8 Dobsonian Telescope for visual observing.
I did not notwithstanding know the necessity of an equatorial mount for deep-sky imaging. Still, I was thrilled with the modest images I was capturing of the Andromeda Galaxy at the time.
I would aim my Canon Powershot signal-and-shoot digital photographic camera into the 25mm Plossl eyepiece that was included with my telescope. I had to stay completely yet as the tiny sensor collected light on my object.
They may have been fuzzy, blurry blobs of lite, but I knew that I was photographing another galaxy, and that concept absolutely blew my mind.
A Dobsonian telescope like this is fantastic for
but not suitable for deep-sky astrophotography.
Early Results using a DSLR
My first few shots of the nighttime sky were out-of-focus landscape shots of the summer constellations in my parent’southward backyard. I didn’t ain a tripod, and then I would use a towel angle the camera just right for a lousy shot of the stars higher up.
These were taken using a Canon Rebel XS I bought on sale. I used the only lens in my bag, an 18-55mm Canon Kit Lens. I figured that 18mm was as wide a shot you could take with a camera, so I thought that was a practiced offset.
As amateur as those showtime few shots were, I could already see how the camera could capture more stars in the image than I could see with the naked center. I think beginners are often shocked the starting time time they see the amount of stars in the sky captured through astrophotography.
Taking your first shot
If you’ve purchased a DSLR camera and a tripod, y’all’re are ready to get started. To beginning, take a wait at the weather forecast for this calendar week.
If the weather is clear, or generally clear, y’all’re in luck.
Next, have a look at the current moon stage using
moongiant.com. Nights surrounding the New Moon phase are best, where the effects of the bright moonlight are minimal. The moon washes out the fainter stars and deep-sky objects in the dark sky.
For many types of astrophotography, the nighttime of the full moon is the worst night to shoot on.
Whether y’all choose to travel to an interesting location or shoot from your lawn is upwardly to you. Information technology might exist best to practice these techniques at dwelling earlier venturing out to a new location in the night.
Making sure your tripod is locked deeply, aim your photographic camera towards the brightest star in the nighttime sky. The stars you see will, of grade, depend on the time of twelvemonth you lot are shooting. If you do not see any bright stars, angle the photographic camera towards a distant streetlight or some other distinguishable calorie-free source.
You will use a bright star to focus the camera lens.
Make sure your camera is set to Manual fashion, and that your lens to
manual focus. This will give yous full control of the light you let into the camera.
Plow on the live-view function of your DSLR, and have a look at the screen. Depending on your current settings and brightness of your location, you may see several stars and your surroundings, or nix at all. At that place are a few things y’all can practice to run into more lite on the screen, including lowering the F-stop (Aperture) or bumping up the ISO (sensitivity to lite).
These general settings work well at dark:
Astrophotography Camera Settings
Yous can adjust these settings according to the DSLR camera and lens you are using. For instance, some lenses can permit light in much faster with a wider aperture of F/2.8 or below. The
Sigma 24mm F/1.iv
is one example, and I take taken some incredible nightscape photos with information technology.
Focusing on a star
With the bright star(s) in view, magnify the epitome by 5X, and then 10X. Accommodate the focus band on your photographic camera lens in and out until the star is equally small every bit possible. This will ensure your focus is is very close to where it needs to exist for an astro epitome. Making some small focus adjustments and taking exam shots volition become you lot even sharper.
Etch your shot
Use the stars in your field of view to compose the shot you want. For instance, if your goal is to capture the Galaxy stretching across the sky, make sure that the core of our milky way is well placed within the scene.
Add some foreground interest to the scene by including the environment around you. For example, natural landscapes that include mountains, rivers, and tall copse can brand your photo of the night sky very dramatic and add together context to the location.
Choosing the right exposure
When shooting on a stationary tripod, images of the night sky will bear witness
after most 15-20 seconds. Knowing this, you’ll want to shoot exposures as long equally possible before the stars begin to trail.
Some people find it useful to utilize
the 500 Rule
as a signal of reference. Y’all simply separate the focal length of the camera lens (X the crop-gene of your camera) by 500.
Even if the exposure looks bright on the screen, you’ll be able to bring it back to a natural level in mail service-processing. In general, it’s best to shoot the longest possible exposure you tin can before star abaft occurs. If you are using a small camera tracker, y’all can recoup for the rotation of the Globe and capture sharp stars in exposures that are 2-minutes or longer.
A setting of about ISO 800 – 1600 should work well. Any college than this will make the image brighter simply come at a toll (more noise). Mod DSLR’s are much amend at handling noise than they used to be but expect to see lots of grain shooting at ISO 3200 or above.
Noise can exist reduced by capturing
dark frames, and stacking the images together using software. For example, the image of the
beneath was shot using an ISO of 6400, even so the noise did not ruin the image thanks to an improved bespeak-to-racket ratio.
The stunning Carina Nebula captured during our honeymoon in Costa Rica.
Information technology’s all in the histogram
Have a look at the data in the histogram below. This was a deep-sky epitome through a telescope, merely the histogram is typical of any long exposure astrophoto. As you tin see, the photographic data in the image sits in the right-mitt third of the histogram, without clipping any highlights off the edge.
A typical histogram of a deep sky astrophotography image taken with a DSLR photographic camera.
Images captured at night
Just similar in regular daytime photography, the image histogram tells a story nearly the information captured in the image. Amateur astrophotographers tend to betrayal to the right, maximizing the lite photons nerveless without clipping the information by overexposing.
Perhaps the strangest and most understood part of the deep-sky astrophotography process is the stretching of the data. A typical unfiltered “light frame” from my light-polluted backyard (Bortle Class eight) shows little more than a washed-out, pink screen with perchance a small smudge and the brightest stars.
The single image frame on the left is from Cherry Springs Land Park, the epitome on the right is from my lite-polluted lawn in Southern Ontario.
From a night heaven location such equally Cherry Springs Land Park in Pennsylvania – the sky volition announced dark blue, but the milky way or nebula in the frame will be extremely faint. Depending on the surface effulgence of the image, little color or fine details will exist distinguishable.
A large part of the epitome processing workflow involves pulling the data from the deep-sky object frontward while leaving the groundwork of space backside it solitary. This increases dissimilarity and tin show the outer and faintest regions of the nebula or milky way.
Globular and open up
do not need nearly as much of a stretch. Enhancing the saturation and color of the varying stars is more than of import here.
Entering Deep-Sky Astrophotography
If you visited my image gallery, you’ll know that my passion lies in deep-sky astrophotography using a DSLR camera and a telescope. This type of photography is known as prime focus astrophotography, and it’s how astrophotographers capture incredibly detailed portraits of deep-heaven objects such as a nebula.
My first astrophotography camera was a Catechism Rebel XSi (450D)
The blazon of camera used for deep-sky imaging is usually a DSLR, a dedicated CMOS sensor astronomy camera or CCD (Charged coupled device). DSLR cameras are ane of the all-time ways to become started in deep-heaven astrophotography, as they are affordable and user-friendly.
A dedicated astronomy camera such as the ZWO
(pictured below) has features that can help you produce incredible long exposure images. These cameras have TEC (thermoelectric cooling) to nigh eliminate noise from the equation.
A mono camera such as the ASI 1600MM-Cool has an incredibly sensitive CMOS sensor that can produce fifty-fifty better images than an OSC (1-shot-color) camera can.
Filters are used in a sequence of LRGB (Luminance, Red, Green, Bluish) to create a color composite prototype of the subject. Narrowband filters that capture specific wavelengths of light can too be incorporated for an unforgettable deep-sky portrait.
Dedicated astronomy cameras, whether they are CCD or CMOS, are frequently much more expensive than a DSLR. They require specialized software to run them, as opposed to operating the camera on the trunk like you lot tin with a DSLR.
Using a DSLR Camera
DSLR cameras record starlight onto the sensor just as the light from a regular daytime photograph would. The difference is, much longer exposures are shot and combined to meliorate the signal-to-noise ratio.
A higher ISO sensitivity is used to maximize the light collected by the DSLR camera. ISO 800 – ISO 1600 are typical camera settings for a DSLR astrophotography image.
The images are combined past “stacking” the exposures together. This reduces the amount of dissonance in the image and can reveal much more than of the color and detail in the deep-heaven subject.
Along with the individual photos you capture (light frames), you lot can do good from taking calibration files such as
flat frames. Calibration frames such equally dark, bias, and apartment frames assist correct the issues that come with long exposure photography using a DSLR photographic camera.
The image you see below is the
Andromeda Galaxy. I took this photo in July 2022 from a dark-sky site on the North Shore of Lake Erie. This photo includes over 3 hours worth of total exposure time.
The Andromeda Galaxy photographed with a DSLR camera.
Professional deep-heaven imagers tend to apply sensitive CCD cameras with a set of narrowband filters, merely a regular DSLR camera is the perfect entry point into the hobby. In that location is some incredible work being done with DSLR cameras that rival much more expensive dedicated astronomy cameras.
Attaching a DSLR to a Telescope
To capture these
we need to use a telescope to bring these objects in for a closer view. The telescope acts as a super-telephoto lens, with typical focal lengths ranging from 400mm to well over 2000mm. The term “Deep-Sky” means distant objects in infinite, frequently millions of light-years abroad from Earth. This includes:
- Globular Star Clusters
- Open Star Clusters
These photos likewise capture a lot of interstellar dust, reflected past the stars effectually it.
The focal length you are using volition depend on the size and design of the telescope. I apply a small refractor telescope with a focal length of well-nigh 700mm. Multiplying this with the crop factor in DLSR camera I use, this brings my focal length to about the
Choosing a Telescope
An 80-100mm refractor telescope is considered a
musical instrument in terms of deep-sky astrophotography. Using a compact apochromatic refractor telescope, I tin can capture most of the largest deep-sky objects within a unmarried frame. Certain nebulae, such as the Due north America Nebula are massive in apparent size, and take up the entire frame (and more).
The Explore Scientific ED80 is an excellent pick for beginners
A wide-field telescope has many advantages, and it’south what I recommend for beginners. A wide-field telescope with a modest focal length is much more forgiving when it comes to star tracking. This is especially important during beginner astrophotography outings, as the satisfying results are more than likely to inspire you to button forward.
Broad Field Views
The downside of a broad-field telescope is that small objects such as most galaxies will appear quite small inside the image frame. For instance, The
is a gorgeous face-on screw galaxy, but it appears quite small in a compact refractor telescope.
If minor galaxies and/or loftier magnification views of deep-sky objects and planets are your primary interest, it will require a unlike equipment setup (hither’s an
case equipment setup
for photographing galaxies).
I don’t propose beginners to endeavour this type of imaging from the start. As the focal length of the optical musical instrument increases, and so do the demand of the tracking platform and boosted measures such equally
A huge benefit of a broad field-instrument is that the largest galaxies such as the Andromeda Galaxy and the
will fill the frame nicely.
The Triangulum Galaxy using a 100mm refractor (550mm focal length)
In general, when information technology comes to deep-sky, information technology’s better to shoot broad and brusque in the first. Meaning shorter exposures through a small refractor telescope. This will increment your chances of success, and hopefully, inspire you to go along moving forward.
The longer your exposure is, the higher the risk that you will see an inconsistency in your telescope tracking. Your telescope mountain may be capable of reliable iii-minute subs, just capturing an epitome for longer than may expose the limits of your mount.
An example of elongated stars due to poor tracking.
The same goes for the focal length of your telescope. In a wide-field refractor, stars may appear small and round in a 3-infinitesimal exposure using your current setup. An image of the aforementioned length may show elongated stars through a high magnification SCT telescope.
To meliorate tracking, there are a number of things you tin try:
- Residual your telescope and astrophotography accessories
- Ensure that no cables are being pulled or snagging
- Improve the accuracy of your polar alignment
- Use autoguiding to makes tiny adjustments to your mounts tracking pattern
A telescope with a long focal length volition magnify any issues in tracking accuracy.
For this reason, I think that the best beginner astrophotography telescope is a wide-field refractor such every bit the
Heaven-Watcher Esprit 100
or similar is best for beginner to intermediate imagers. This apochromatic refractor produces images with a apartment field, with splendid color correction.
At 550mm focal length, this telescope is much more forgiving in terms of tracking accuracy for astrophotography than one in the 1500mm+ range.
Images captured using the Sky-Watcher Esprit 100 APO telescope.
Unfortunately, many amateur astrophotographers will first with a
that provides deep views, just to find that this method has a steep learning curve that but the almost dedicated imagers will overcome!
The Capturing Process
Astrophotography involves some really long exposures. In daytime photography, a 5-second exposure using a filter, low ISO, and f/22 can create some incredible landscape images. This can capture movement such as flowing water and passing clouds.
In astrophotography, nosotros use ultra-long exposures to capture dim objects in space.
I’m talking exposures of iii-4 minutes each or longer.
The photo below features theCalifornia Nebula
captured with the
Radian Raptor 61. Several 5-minute exposures were stacked together to produce it.
This photo of the California Nebula includes multiple exposures of v minutes each.
As the sensor records the low-cal entering the camera, it collects much more than detail than our naked eye could ever see. Likewise every bit faint details of milky way screw arms and nebulosity, we are also able to tape the intense color of the gasses, dust, and stars in space.
To produce detailed images of these DSO’due south (deep-sky objects), we need to increase the signal to noise ratio of the image. The signal is the light collected by the photographic camera, and noise is – well you lot all know what camera noise is.
If you lot’ve always spoiled an paradigm in a low light situation because of racket – you lot should come across what happens in a unmarried astro image frame! To maximize the information we collect under the stars, high ISO settings of 800, 1600 or more are often used. This, of class, creates a lot of noise.
To combat this, we tin can improve the signal to noise ratio by
stacking several images together.
In the example below, I compared stacked sets of 2-minute light frames with a dedicated astronomy photographic camera. Even though dithering or dark frame subtraction was non used, you can conspicuously run into that the dissonance is reduced equally more than exposure time is added to the final integration.
The indicate (the calorie-free in our DSO) continues to layer on top of each other, yet the dissonance falls in random patterns and eventually cancels itself out. I use a software application called
to combine multiple prototype exposures together for concluding processing.
The feeling of seeing your precious epitome get smoother and smoother as you stack more and more data together is euphoric. Yes, I get a niggling geeky when information technology comes to improving the signal to racket ratio of my astrophotography images.
Using DeepSkyStacker to stack and register individual images together.
Follow along with me in an Paradigm Processing Tutorial using Deep-Heaven Stacker and Photoshop.
I hope you have enjoyed this how-to guide on astrophotography for beginners. With the right tools and a little patience, yous as well volition be taking astonishing images of our night heaven.
Download My Image Processing Guide
If you would like to learn about every astrophotography epitome processing technique I utilise in DeepSkyStacker and Photoshop, you lot tin download my premium guide. The PDF download contains
over 100 pages
of the specific steps I take to process all of my images. The guide is
DSLR Astrophotography – 5 Ways to Amend your Images
Photoshop Tutorial – Deep-Sky Paradigm Processing
Astrophotography Blog – My Top Posts
Astrophotography – 5 Expensive Beginner Mistakes
How to accept great photos of Star Trails – EarthSky
Ultimate List of Best Astrophotography Lenses – Lonely Speck
Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD)
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