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French sociologist and philosopher

Jean Baudrillard

Baudrillard in 2004 at the European Graduate School

Born (1929-07-27)27 July 1929

Reims, France

Died six March 2007(2007-03-06)
(aged 77)

Paris, France

Alma mater Academy of Paris
Era 20th-/21st-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
  • Continental philosophy
  • French Nietzscheanism
  • Post-Marxism[1]
  • Nihilism
  • Postal service-structuralism (debated)
  • Postmodernism (debated)
  • Paris X Nanterre
  • European Graduate School
Doctoral advisor Henri Lefebvre

Main interests

  • the event
  • alterity
  • the object
  • Pataphysics
  • photography
  • semiotics
  • power
  • historicity(end of history)
  • System theory[
    citation needed

    commendation needed
  • Social entropy[
    commendation needed
  • Mass media and Media theory
  • communication
  • simulacrum
  • postmodernity
  • consumerism
  • gender relations
  • critique of economy(value-form)
  • economics
  • social history
  • fine art
  • Western foreign policy
  • popular culture
  • anthropology
  • ‘seduction’/beloved
    (meet also Mario Perniola#Mail-structuralism)

Notable ideas

  • the transfinite
  • the transpolitical
  • transaesthetics
  • Hyperreality
  • sign value
  • desert of the real
  • ‘symbolic exchange’
  • ‘theory-fiction’ (See too Nick Land)
  • ‘raw phenomenology’[
    citation needed


  • Karl Marx • Marcel Mauss • Marshall McLuhan • Alfred Jarry • Ferdinand de Saussure • Roland Barthes • Michel Foucault • Guy Debord • Henri Lefebvre • Georges Bataille • Friedrich Nietzsche • Soren Kierkegaard[2]
    [3] • Jorge Luis Borges • Thorstein Veblen[4]
    • Claude Levi-Strauss[
    citation needed

    • Charles Baudelaire[6]
    • Walter Benjamin[vii]
    • Elias Canetti[8]
    • Roger Caillois[xiii]


  • Sophie Calle • Peter Halley • Gerald Vizenor • The Wachowskis • Cody Wilson • Gilles Lipovetsky • Slavoj Žižek •  • Nick Land • Mario Perniola  • Byung-Chul Han  • Paul Virilio[
    commendation needed
     • Adam Possamai[
    commendation needed

Jean Baudrillard


[ʒɑ̃ bodʁijaʁ]; 27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher and cultural theorist. He is best known for his analyses of media, contemporary culture, and technological communication, as well every bit his formulation of concepts such as simulation and hyperreality. Baudrillard wrote nearly diverse subjects, including consumerism, gender relations, critique of economy, economics, social history, art, Western strange policy, and pop culture. Among his best known works are
Simulacra and Simulation
(1986), and
The Gulf State of war Did Not Take Place
(1991). His piece of work is frequently associated with postmodernism and specifically mail-structuralism.[17]
Nevertheless, Baudrillard tin exist besides seen as a critic of post-structuralism[21]
and has distanced himself from postmodernism.[17]



Baudrillard was born in Reims, northeastern France, on 27 July 1929. His grandparents were farm workers and his father a gendarme. During high school (at the Lycée at Reims), he became aware of pataphysics via philosophy professor Emmanuel Peillet, which is said to exist crucial for understanding Baudrillard’south later thought.[23]
He became the first of his family unit to attend university when he moved to Paris to attend the Sorbonne.[24]
There he studied High german language and literature,[25]
which led him to begin teaching the subject at several different lycées, both Parisian and provincial, from 1960 until 1966.[23]
While teaching, Baudrillard began to publish reviews of literature and translated the works of such authors as Peter Weiss, Bertolt Brecht, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann.[26]

While pedagogy German, Baudrillard began to transfer to sociology, somewhen completing and publishing in 1968 his doctoral thesis
Le Système des Objets
(The System of Objects) nether the dissertation committee of Henri Lefebvre, Roland Barthes, and Pierre Bourdieu. Subsequently, he began instruction Sociology at the Paris X Nanterre, a university campus just outside Paris which would go heavily involved in the events of May 1968.[27]
During this fourth dimension, Baudrillard worked closely with Philosopher Humphrey De Battenburge, who described Baudrillard every bit a “visionary”.[28]
At Nanterre he took up a position as
Maître Assistant
(Assistant Professor), so
Maître de Conférences
(Acquaintance Professor), somewhen condign a professor subsequently completing his accreditation,
L’Autre par lui-même
(The Other by Himself).

In 1970, Baudrillard made the first of his many trips to the Us (Aspen, Colorado), and in 1973, the first of several trips to Kyoto, Japan. He was given his commencement photographic camera in 1981 in Nihon, which led to him becoming a photographer.[26]

In 1986 he moved to IRIS (Institut de Recherche et d’Information Socio-Économique) at the Université de Paris-Nine Dauphine, where he spent the latter part of his teaching career. During this time he had begun to move away from sociology every bit a subject (particularly in its “classical” form), and, subsequently ceasing to teach full-time, he rarely identified himself with whatsoever particular discipline, although he remained linked to academia. During the 1980s and 1990s his books had gained a wide audience, and in his last years he became, to an extent, an intellectual celebrity,[29]
being published frequently in the French- and English language-speaking pop press. He nonetheless continued supporting the Institut de Recherche sur l’Innovation Sociale at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and was
at the Collège de Pataphysique. Baudrillard taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland,[30]
and collaborated at the Canadian theory, civilization, and applied science review
Ctheory, where he was abundantly cited. He also participated in the
International Journal of Baudrillard Studies
from its inception in 2004 until his death.[31]
In 1999–2000, his photographs were exhibited at the Maison européenne de la photographie in Paris.[32]
In 2004, Baudrillard attended the major conference on his piece of work, “Baudrillard and the Arts”, at the Eye for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany.[26]

Personal life


Grave of Jean Baudrillard with flowers and vines planted and growing over it in Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris, France.

Baudrillard enjoyed baroque music; a favorite composer was Claudio Monteverdi. He also favored rock music such equally
The Velvet Hugger-mugger & Nico.[33]

Baudrillard was married twice. He and his starting time wife Lucile Baudrillard had two children, Gilles and Anne.[34]
round reference

In 1970 during his outset union, Baudrillard met 25 yr erstwhile Marine Dupuis when she arrived at the Paris Nanterre University where he was a professor. Marine went on to be a media artistic managing director. They married in 1994 when he was 65.[37]

Diagnosed with cancer in 2005, Baudrillard battled the disease two years from his apartment on Rue Sainte-Beuve, Paris, dying at the age of 77.[34]
Marine Baudrillard curates
Cool Memories, an association of Jean Baudrillard’s friends.

Cardinal concepts


Baudrillard’south published work emerged as part of a generation of French thinkers including: Gilles Deleuze, Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and Jacques Lacan who all shared an interest in semiotics, and he is often seen as a part of the post-structuralist philosophical school.[38]
In common with many post-structuralists, his arguments consistently draw upon the notion that signification and meaning are both simply understandable in terms of how particular words or “signs” interrelate. Baudrillard idea, equally exercise many post-structuralists, that meaning is brought about through
of signs working together. Post-obit on from the structuralist linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Baudrillard argued that meaning (value) is created through
departure—through what something is not (so “dog” ways “dog” because information technology is not-“cat”, non-“caprine animal”, non-“tree”, etc.). In fact, he viewed significant equally near enough self-referential: objects, images of objects, words and signs are situated in a web of meaning; one object’s meaning is only understandable through its relation to the meaning of other objects; for instance, one affair’s prestige relates to another’s mundanity.

From this starting point Baudrillard theorized broadly most human society based upon this kind of self-referentiality. His writing portrays societies always searching for a sense of significant—or a “total” understanding of the world—that remains consistently elusive. In dissimilarity to Post-structuralism (such every bit Michel Foucault), for whom the formations of knowledge emerge but as the result of relations of ability, Baudrillard adult theories in which the excessive, fruitless search for total knowledge leads nearly inevitably to a kind of mirage. In Baudrillard’s view, the (human) subject may effort to understand the (non-human) object, only because the object can but be understood according to what it signifies (and because the process of signification immediately involves a web of other signs from which it is distinguished) this never produces the desired results. The subject is, rather,
(in the original Latin sense:

, ‘to lead away’) by the object. He argued therefore that, in the final analysis, a complete understanding of the minutiae of man life is impossible, and when people are seduced into thinking otherwise they become drawn toward a “simulated” version of reality, or, to use one of his neologisms, a state of “hyperreality.” This is not to say that the world becomes unreal, but rather that the faster and more than comprehensively societies begin to bring reality together into one supposedly coherent motion picture, the more insecure and unstable it looks and the more fearful societies become.[39]
Reality, in this sense, “dies out.”[twoscore]

Appropriately, Baudrillard argued that the excess of signs and of pregnant in belatedly 20th century “global” lodge had caused (quite paradoxically) an effacement of reality. In this globe neither liberal nor Marxist utopias are any longer believed in. We live, he argued, not in a “global hamlet”, to use Marshall McLuhan’s phrase, merely rather in a earth that is ever more than hands petrified by even the smallest event. Because the “global” earth operates at the level of the commutation of signs and bolt, information technology becomes ever more blind to
acts such as, for example, terrorism. In Baudrillard’s work the symbolic realm (which he develops a perspective on through the anthropological piece of work of Marcel Mauss and Georges Bataille) is seen as quite distinct from that of signs and signification. Signs tin can be exchanged like commodities; symbols, on the other manus, operate quite differently: they are exchanged, like gifts, sometimes violently as a course of potlatch. Baudrillard, particularly in his later on work, saw the “global” society as without this “symbolic” element, and therefore symbolically (if not militarily) defenseless against acts such as the Rushdie Fatwa[41]
or, indeed, the September eleven terrorist attacks against the United States and its military and economic establishment.

The object value arrangement


In his early books, such equally
The Arrangement of Objects,
For a Critique of the Political Economic system of the Sign, and
The Consumer Order [fr]
, Baudrillard’s main focus is upon consumerism, and how different objects are consumed in dissimilar ways. At this fourth dimension Baudrillard’due south political outlook was loosely associated with Marxism (and Situationism), but in these books he differed from Karl Marx in 1 significant way. For Baudrillard, every bit for the situationists, information technology was consumption rather than production that was the master driver of capitalist order.

Baudrillard came to this decision by criticising Marx’due south concept of “use-value.” Baudrillard thought that both Marx’s and Adam Smith’s economic thought accepted the idea of 18-carat needs relating to genuine uses besides hands and too simply. Baudrillard argued, drawing from Georges Bataille, that needs are synthetic, rather than innate. He stressed that all purchases, because they e’er signify something
socially, have their fetishistic side. Objects always, drawing from Roland Barthes, “say something” most their users. And this was, for him, why consumption was and remains more of import than production: because the “ideological genesis of needs” precedes the production of appurtenances to meet those needs.[42]

: 63

He wrote that in that location are four ways of an object obtaining value. The four value-making processes are:[42]

  1. The
    value: an object’s instrumental purpose (use value). Example: a pen writes; a fridge cools.
  2. The
    value: an object’s economic value. Instance: One pen may exist worth iii pencils, while i refrigerator may exist worth the salary earned past 3 months of work.
  3. The
    value: an object’due south value assigned by a field of study
    in relation to another subject
    (i.e., between a giver and receiver). Case: a pen might symbolize a educatee’s schoolhouse graduation gift or a commencement speaker’s gift; or a diamond may be a symbol of publicly alleged marital dearest.
  4. The
    value: an object’s value within a
    of objects. Case: a particular pen may, while having no added functional do good, signify prestige relative to another pen; a diamond band may have no function at all, merely may suggest particular social values, such every bit taste or grade.

Baudrillard’s earlier books were attempts to argue that the first two of these values are not simply associated, but are disrupted by the third and, especially, the fourth. Later, Baudrillard rejected Marxism totally (The Mirror of Production
Symbolic Exchange and Death).[
citation needed

But the focus on the deviation between sign value (which relates to commodity exchange) and symbolic value (which relates to Maussian gift exchange) remained in his work up until his decease. Indeed, it came to play a more than and more than important function, particularly in his writings on world events.

Simulacra and Simulation


As Baudrillard developed his piece of work throughout the 1980s, he moved from economic theory to mediation and mass communication. Although retaining his interest in Saussurean semiotics and the logic of symbolic exchange (as influenced by anthropologist Marcel Mauss), Baudrillard turned his attention to the work of Marshall McLuhan, developing ideas about how the nature of social relations is determined by the forms of advice that a society employs. In then doing, Baudrillard progressed beyond both Saussure’s and Roland Barthes’southward formal semiology to consider the implications of a historically understood version of structural semiology. Co-ordinate to Kornelije Kvas, “Baudrillard rejects the structuralist principle of the equivalence of different forms of linguistic organization, the binary principle that contains oppositions such as: truthful-false, real-unreal, center-periphery. He denies whatever possibility of a (mimetic) duplication of reality; reality mediated through language becomes a game of signs. In his theoretical system all distinctions between the real and the fictional, betwixt a copy and the original, disappear”.[43]

Simulation, Baudrillard claims, is the current phase of the simulacrum: all is composed of references with no referents, a hyperreality.[44]
Baudrillard argues that this is part of a historical progression. In the Renaissance, the ascendant simulacrum was in the form of the counterfeit, where people or objects announced to represent a real referent that does not exist (for case, royalty, nobility, holiness, etc.). With the Industrial Revolution, the ascendant simulacrum becomes the production, which can exist propagated on an endless product line. In current times, the ascendant simulacrum is the model, which by its nature already stands for endless reproducibility, and is itself already reproduced.

The stop of history and meaning


Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, one of Baudrillard’south most common themes was historicity, or, more than specifically, how present-24-hour interval societies use the notions of progress and modernity in their political choices. He argued, much like the political theorist Francis Fukuyama, that history had concluded or “vanished” with the spread of globalization; just, unlike Fukuyama, Baudrillard averred that this terminate should not be understood equally the culmination of history’s progress,[45]
but as the collapse of the very
of historical progress. For Baudrillard, the end of the Cold War did not represent an ideological victory; rather, it signaled the disappearance of utopian visions shared between both the political Right and Left. Giving further evidence of his opposition toward Marxist visions of global communism and liberal visions of global ceremonious society, Baudrillard contended that the ends they hoped for had always been illusions; indeed, equally
The Illusion of the Cease
argues, he thought the idea of an terminate itself was nil more than a misguided dream:

The end of history is, alas, also the end of the dustbins of history. At that place are no longer any dustbins for disposing of old ideologies, old regimes, old values. Where are we going to throw Marxism, which actually invented the dustbins of history? (All the same at that place is some justice hither since the very people who invented them have fallen in.) Conclusion: if there are no more dustbins of history, this is because History itself has become a dustbin. It has get its own dustbin, only as the planet itself is becoming its own dustbin.[46]

Within a society subject to and ruled by fast-paced electronic advice and global information networks the collapse of this façade was always going to be, he thought, inevitable. Employing a quasi-scientific vocabulary that attracted the ire of the physicist Alan Sokal, Baudrillard wrote that the speed society moved at had destabilized the linearity of history: “we accept the particle accelerator that has smashed the referential orbit of things once and for all.”[47]

In making this statement Baudrillard found some affinity with the postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard, who argued that in the late 20th century there was no longer any room for “metanarratives.” (The triumph of a coming communism being one such metanarrative.) Only, in addition to just lamenting this collapse of history, Baudrillard also went beyond Lyotard and attempted to analyse how the idea of positive progress was existence employed in spite of the notion’s declining validity. Baudrillard argued that although genuine belief in a universal endpoint of history, wherein all conflicts would find their resolution, had been deemed redundant, universality was nonetheless a notion utilised in world politics equally an alibi for deportment. Universal values which, according to him, no one any longer believed universal were and are all the same rhetorically employed to justify otherwise unjustifiable choices. The means, he wrote, are there fifty-fifty though the ends are no longer believed in, and are employed in order to hide the nowadays’s harsh realities (or, as he would accept put it, unrealities). “In the Enlightenment, universalization was viewed as unlimited growth and forrad progress. Today, by contrast, universalization is expressed equally a forrad
This involves the notion of “escape velocity” every bit outlined in
The Vital Illusion
(2000), which in turn, results in the postmodern
fallacy of escape velocity
on which the postmodern mind and disquisitional view cannot, past definition, ever truly interruption free from the extensive “self-referential” sphere of discourse.


On the Bosnian War


Baudrillard reacted to the West’south indifference to the Bosnian State of war in writings, by and large in essays in his column for
Libération. More specifically, he expressed his view on Europe’s unwillingness to answer to “assailment and genocide in Bosnia,” in which “New Europe” revealed itself to be a “sham.” He criticized the Western media and intellectuals for their passivity, and for taking the office of bystanders, engaging in ineffective, hypocritical and cocky-serving action, and the public for its inability to distinguish
from real world happenings, in which real expiry and destruction in Bosnia seemed unreal. He was determined in his columns to openly name the perpetrators, Serbs, and call their actions in Bosnia aggression and genocide.[49]

On the Persian Gulf State of war


Baudrillard’s provocative 1991 book,
The Gulf War Did Non Have Place,[l]
raised his public profile as an bookish and political commentator. He argued that the first Gulf State of war was the changed of the Clausewitzian formula: not “the continuation of politics by other ways,” but “the continuation of the absenteeism of politics past other ways.” Appropriately, Saddam Hussein was not fighting the Coalition, but using the lives of his soldiers every bit a form of sacrifice to preserve his power.[50]

: 72

The Coalition fighting the Iraqi war machine was merely dropping 10,000 tonnes of bombs daily, as if proving to themselves that there was an enemy to fight.[l]

: 61

So, too, were the Western media complicit, presenting the war in existent time, by recycling images of state of war to propagate the notion that the U.Due south.-led Coalition and the Iraqi government were really fighting, just, such was not the case. Saddam Hussein did non employ his military capacity (the Iraqi Air Forcefulness). His power was non weakened, evinced past his like shooting fish in a barrel suppression of the 1991 internal uprisings that followed afterwards. Over all, fiddling had inverse. Saddam remained undefeated, the “victors” were not victorious, and thus there was no war—i.due east., the Gulf War did not occur.

The volume was originally a series of articles in the British paper
The Guardian
and the French newspaper
Libération, published in three parts: “The Gulf War Will Not Have Place,” published during the American armed services and rhetorical buildup; “The Gulf War Is Non Taking Place,” published during military action; and “The Gulf War Did Not Take Identify” published after.

Some critics[

accused Baudrillard of instant revisionism; a deprival of the concrete activeness of the disharmonize (which was related to his denial of reality in general[
citation needed
). Consequently, Baudrillard was defendant of lazy amoralism, cynical scepticism, and Berkelian subjective idealism. Sympathetic commentators such every bit William Merrin, in his book
Baudrillard and the Media, accept argued that Baudrillard was more concerned with the West’s technological and political authorization and the globalization of its commercial interests, and what that ways for the nowadays possibility of state of war. Merrin argued that Baudrillard was non denying that something had happened, simply merely questioning whether that something was in fact war or a bilateral “atrocity masquerading as a war.” Merrin viewed the accusations of amorality as redundant and based on a misreading. In Baudrillard’s ain words:[50]

: 71–2

Saddam liquidates the communists, Moscow flirts even more with him; he gases the Kurds, it is not held against him; he eliminates the religious cadres, the whole of Islam makes peace with him.… Fifty-fifty…the 100,000 expressionless will merely take been the terminal decoy that Saddam volition have sacrificed, the claret money paid in forfeit co-ordinate to a calculated equivalence, in order to preserve his power. What is worse is that these dead still serve as an alibi for those who do not desire to have been excited for nothing: at least these dead will testify this state of war was indeed a war and not shameful and pointless.

On the terrorist attacks of eleven September 2001


In contrast to the “not-event” of the Gulf War, in his essay “The Spirit of Terrorism”[51]
Baudrillard characterises the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City every bit the “absolute result”. Seeking to sympathise them as a reaction to the technological and political expansion of capitalist globalization, rather than as a war of religiously based or civilisation-based warfare, he described the absolute event and its consequences as follows:

This is not a clash of civilisations or religions, and it reaches far beyond Islam and America, on which efforts are being fabricated to focus the conflict in guild to create the mirage of a visible confrontation and a solution based upon strength. There is indeed a fundamental antagonism here, only one that points past the spectre of America (which is perhaps the epicentre, but in no sense the sole embodiment, of globalisation) and the spectre of Islam (which is not the embodiment of terrorism either) to triumphant globalisation battling confronting itself.[51]

In accordance with his theory of guild, Baudrillard portrayed the attacks as a symbolic reaction to the inexorable rise of a world based on commodity exchange. This opinion was criticised on ii counts. Richard Wolin (in
The Seduction of Unreason) forcefully defendant Baudrillard and Slavoj Žižek of all but celebrating the terrorist attacks, essentially claiming that the Usa received what it deserved. Žižek, notwithstanding, countered that accusation to Wolin’s assay as a form of intellectual barbarism in the journal
Critical Enquiry, saying that Wolin failed to see the departure between fantasising about an effect and stating that one is deserving of that issue. Merrin (in
Baudrillard and the Media) argued that Baudrillard’south position affords the terrorists a type of moral superiority. In the journal
Economy and Order, Merrin further noted that Baudrillard gives the symbolic facets of guild unfair privilege in a higher place semiotic concerns. Second, authors questioned whether the attacks were unavoidable. Bruno Latour, in
Critical Inquiry,
argued that Baudrillard believed that their destruction was forced past the society that created them, alluding to the notion that the Towers were “brought downward by their own weight.” In Latour’south view, this was because Baudrillard conceived merely of society in terms of a symbolic and semiotic dualism.[52]

The Agony of Power


During 2005, Baudrillard wrote three brusk pieces and gave a brief magazine interview, all treating like ideas; following his death in 2007, the 4 pieces were collected and published posthumously as
The Desperation of Ability, a polemic against power itself.[53]
The first piece, “From Domination to Hegemony”, contrasts its 2 subjects, modes of power; domination stands for historical, traditional power relations, while hegemony stands for modern, more sophisticated ability relations as realized by states and businesses. Baudrillard decried the “cynicism” with which contemporary businesses openly land their business organization models. For example, he cited French television channel TF1 executive Patrick Le Lay who stated that his business’ job was “to assist Coca-Cola sell its products.”[53]

: 37

Baudrillard lamented that such honesty pre-empted and thus robbed the Left of its traditional role of critiquing governments and businesses: “In fact, Le Lay takes away the simply power we had left. He steals our denunciation.”[53]

: 38–9

Consequently, Baudrillard stated that “power itself must be abolished—and not solely in the refusal to be dominated…just also, just as violently, in the refusal to dominate.”[53]

: 47

The latter pieces included further analysis of the September xi terrorist attacks, using the metaphor of the Native American potlatch to draw both American and Muslim societies, specifically the American state versus the hijackers. In the pieces’ context, “potlatch” referred non to the souvenir-giving attribute of the ritual, but rather its wealth-destroying attribute: “The terrorists’ potlatch against the West is their own death. Our potlatch is indignity, immodesty, obscenity, degradation and abjection.”[53]

: 67

This criticism of the W carried notes of Baudrillard’s simulacrum, the above cynicism of business, and dissimilarity betwixt Muslim and Western societies:[53]

: 67–8

We [the West] throw this indifference and abjection at others similar a claiming: the challenge to defile themselves in return, to deny their values, to strip naked, confess, admit—to answer to a nihilism equal to our own.



One of Baudrillard’s editors, Mark Poster, was among a number of academics who argued for his contemporary relevance; he remarked:[54]

: eight

Baudrillard’s writing upward to the mid-1980s is open to several criticisms. He fails to define central terms, such equally the code; his writing style is hyperbolic and declarative, often lacking sustained, systematic analysis when it is appropriate; he totalizes his insights, refusing to qualify or circumscribe his claims. He writes about particular experiences, television receiver images, equally if nothing else in club mattered, extrapolating a bleak view of the world from that limited base of operations. He ignores contradictory show such as the many benefits afforded by the new media

Poster as well attempted to refute the most extreme of Baudrillard’s critics, the likes of Alan Sokal and Christopher Norris who see him as a purveyor of a class of reality-denying irrationalism:[54]

: vii

Baudrillard is non disputing the trivial issue that reason remains operative in some actions, that if I want to arrive at the adjacent cake, for example, I can assume a Newtonian universe (mutual sense), program a course of activeness (to walk straight for
X meters), deport out the activeness, and finally fulfill my goal by arriving at the point in question. What is in incertitude is that this sort of thinking enables a historically informed grasp of the present in general. According to Baudrillard, it does not. The concurrent spread of the hyperreal through the media and the collapse of liberal and Marxist politics as the master narratives, deprives the rational subject of its privileged admission to truth. In an important sense individuals are no longer citizens, eager to maximise their civil rights, nor proletarians, anticipating the onset of communism. They are rather consumers, and hence the prey of objects every bit defined by the code.

Simply 1 of the two major confrontational books on Baudrillard’due south thought—Christopher Norris’s
Uncritical Theory: Postmodernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf State of war
[55]—seeks to reject his media theory and position on “the real” out of hand. The other—postmodern theorist Douglas Kellner’s
Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond
[56]—seeks rather to analyse Baudrillard’s relation to postmodernism (a concept with which Baudrillard has had a continued, if uneasy and rarely explicit, relationship) and to present a Marxist counter. Regarding the one-time, William Merrin (discussed above) published more than one denunciation of Norris’ position. The latter Baudrillard himself characterised equally reductive.[57]

Douglas Kellner commented that Baudrillard’s views were ‘ultra-leftist’ in his writing of
Symbolic Exchange and Death.[17]
Baudrillard later admitted that his views could exist classified as right-wing “in objective terms”, just institute the Left–correct political spectrum capricious.[21]

In popular culture


Native American (Anishinaabe) writer Gerald Vizenor, who has made extensive utilise of Baudrillard’due south concepts of simulation in his critical work.[58]
description needed

The Wachowskis said that Baudrillard influenced
The Matrix
(1999), and Neo hides money and disks containing information in
Simulacra and Simulation. One critic wondered whether Baudrillard, who had non embraced the motion-picture show, was “thinking of suing for a screen credit,”[59]
only Baudrillard himself disclaimed any connection to
The Matrix, calling it at best a misreading of his ideas.[threescore]

Some reviewers accept noted that Charlie Kaufman’due south film
Synecdoche, New York
seems inspired by Baudrillard’s
Simulacra and Simulation.[63]

Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared?
by stone band Deerhunter was purportedly influenced by Baudrillard’s essay of the same proper name.[66]



Books (English translations)


  • 1968.
    The Arrangement of Objects
  • 1970.
    The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures [fr]
  • 1972.
    For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign
  • 1973.
    The Mirror of Production
  • 1976.
    Symbolic Exchange and Death
  • 1977.
    Forget Foucault
  • 1979.
  • 1981.
    Simulacra and Simulation
  • 1982.
    In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities
  • 1983.
    Fatal Strategies
  • 1983.
  • 1986.
  • 1987.
    Cool Memories 1980-1985
  • 1987.
    The Ecstasy of Communication
  • 1990.
    The Transparency of Evil
  • 1991.
    The Gulf War Did Not Take Identify
  • 1992.
    The Illusion of the End
  • 1995.
    The Perfect Criminal offence
  • 1996.
    Cool Memories II 1987-1990
  • 1997.
    Fragments: Cool Memories 3 1990-1995
  • 1998.
    Paroxysm: Interviews with Philippe Petit
  • 1999.
    Impossible Commutation
  • 2000.
  • 2000.
    The Singular Objects of Architecture
  • 2000.
    The Vital Illusion
  • 2002.
    The Spirit of Terrorism And Requiem for the Twin Towers
  • 2003.
    Fragments (Interviews with François L’Yvonnet)
  • 2003.
    Cool Memories Four 1995-2000
  • 2005.
    The Intelligence of Evil or the Lucidity Pact
  • 2005.
    The Conspiracy of Art
  • 2006.
    Utopia Deferred: Writings for Utopie (1967–1978)
  • 2006.
    Cool Memories V 2000-2004
  • 2007.
    Exiles from Dialogue
  • 2008.
    Radical Alterity
  • 2009.
    Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared?
  • 2010.
    Carnival and Cannibal, or the Play of Global Antagonisms
  • 2010.
    The Agony of Power
  • 2011.
  • 2014.
    Screened Out
  • 2014.
    The Divine Left: A Relate of the Years 1977–1984

Articles and essays


  • 1996. “No Pity for Sarajevo; The West’due south Serbianization; When the W Stands In for the Dead.” Pp. 79–89 in
    This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia. NYU Press. JSTOR
  • 2001. “The Spirit of Terrorism.”
  • 2005. “Divine Europe.”
  • 2006. “The Pyres of Autumn.”
    New Left Review
  • The violence of images, violence confronting the prototype.



  • Jocks, Heinz-Norbert:
    Dice Fotografie und die Dinge. Ein Gespräch mit Jean Baudrillard.
    Kunstforum International., No: 172,
    Das Ende der Fotografie.
    Editor: Heinz-Norbert Jocks, 2004, p. 70–83.
  • Smith, Richard Thousand., David B. Clarke, eds. 2015.
    Jean Baudrillard: From Hyperreality to Disappearance: Uncollected Interviews. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9429-7.
  • Smith, Richard G., David B. Clarke, eds. 2017.
    Jean Baudrillard: The Disappearance of Culture: Uncollected Interviews. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh Academy Press. ISBN 978-ane-4744-1778-v.

Sound CDs


  • 1997.
    Die Illusion des Endes – Das Ende der Illusion
    [58 minutes + booklet], Jean Baudrillard & Boris Groys. Cologne: supposé. ISBN 3-932513-01-0
  • 2006.
    Die Macht der Verführung, [55 minutes]. Cologne: supposé. ISBN 978-3-932513-67-1.

See likewise


  • Hyperreality
  • Hyper-real Religion





a: : Baudrillard: “The matter is complicated further past the play of terminology. Neither seduction nor love beingness precise notions (they take no place in the great conceptual systems, nor in psychoanalysis), they caneasily switch or be confused. So if one takes seduction to be a challenge, a game where the bets are never down, an uninterrupted ritual exchange, an infinite escalation of the ante, a secret complicity, etc., ane can e’er answer: “Merely and so defined, wouldn’t seduction be simply love?”… “We can fifty-fifty capsize the relation and make love something more than decisive, more challenging than seduction.”[69]



  1. ^

    Stephen Baker,
    The Fiction of Postmodernity, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000, p. 64.

  2. ^

    Baudrillard, Žižek, and the Seduction of Christ. Marcus Pound. Retrieved on 28 December 2021 https://core.air-conditioning.u.k./reader/162911705

  3. ^ Baudrillard and the Fine art Conspiracy ( Wayback Machine (

  4. ^

    Kellner, Douglas (2020). “Early Writings: From the System of Objects to The Mirror of Production”. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.).
    Jean Baudrillard.
    The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    (Winter 2020 ed.).

  5. ^ force/economics-biographies/thorstein-veblen force/economic science-biographies/thorstein-veblen[
    bare URL

  6. ^

    Revenge of the Crystal: An Interview with Jean Baudrillard by Guy Bellavance, page 22, 34

  7. ^

    Ibid, Folio 22

  8. ^

    Forget Foucault, page 71

  9. ^

    Fatal Strategies
    page 32-35 SEMIOTEXT(E) Strange AGENTS Serial Originally published in 1983 as Les Strategiesfatales by Editions Grasset, Paris. ISBN 978-1-58435-061-3

  10. ^

    Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared? ISBN 978-one-9064-9-740-8 page 20

  11. ^

    Cool Memories translated by Chris Turner Verso Books page 26

  12. ^

    The Intelligence of Evil page 159, 166, 189

  13. ^

    The Ecstasy of Communication

  14. ^

    Fatal Strategies ISBN-xiii: 978-ane-58435-061-three Translated by Philippe Beitchman and Due west. One thousand. J. Niesluchowski Originally published in 1983 as Les Strategies fatales by Editions Grasset, Paris. pg 27-28, 94-95

  15. ^

    “The Political Destiny Of Seduction, “Seduction”, translated by Brian Vocaliser, page 144, New World Perspectives, CultureTexts Series, ISBN 0-920393-25-X

  16. ^

    “Baudrillard, Jean”.
    Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford Academy Printing. n.d. Retrieved
    half-dozen Baronial

  17. ^




    Kellner, Douglas. 2019. “Jean Baudrillard.”
    The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by E. N. Zalta.

  18. ^

    “Aylesworth, Gary, “Postmodernism”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2015 Edition), Edward Northward. Zalta (ed.)”. Retrieved
    1 January
    The French, for example, work with concepts developed during the structuralist revolution in Paris in the 1950s and early 1960s, including structuralist readings of Marx and Freud. For this reason they are frequently chosen “poststructuralists.” They also cite the events of May 1968 equally a watershed moment for modern thought and its institutions, specially the universities.

  19. ^

    Aylesworth, Gary. 2015.”Postmodernism.”
    The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by East. N. Zalta. Retrieved one January 2020.
    The French, for example, work with concepts adult during the structuralist revolution in Paris in the 1950s and early 1960s, including structuralist readings of Marx and Freud. For this reason they are often called “poststructuralists.” They also cite the events of May 1968 as a watershed moment for mod thought and its institutions, especially the universities.

  20. ^

    Redhead, Steve. “All Things are Curves: Notes on the intersecting lives of Jean Baudrillard and Paul Virilio – Fusion Journal, no. two, 2013”
    Charles Sturt University Enquiry Portal. Archived
    from the original on 2021. Retrieved
    26 February

  21. ^



    Due south(t)imulacrum(b) (
    A radical defence force of structuralism confronting poststructuralism, although worded as a radical defense force of “fatality” (i.east. destiny) against “run a risk” and “randomness.” Rather than accepting the view of meaning/club equally something imposed on disorder by the discourse of rationality, Baudrillard defends precisely the contrary; disorder is imposed upon order past the soapbox of innocence (if everything is left upward to chance, we escape man responsibility for social situations).

  22. ^

    “The art of disappearing – BAUDRILLARD At present”. 22 January 2021. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved
    two March

    “[ Transmodernism etc] are improve terms than “postmodernism”. It is not about modernity; it is near every system that has adult its mode of expression to the extent that it surpasses itself and its own logic. This is what I am trying to analyze.” “There is no longer whatsoever ontologically secret substance. I perceive this to be nihilism rather than postmodernism. To me, nihilism is a good thing – I am a nihilist, not a postmodernist.”
  23. ^



    L’Yvonnet (2004), p. 317.
    sfnp error: no target: CITEREFL’Yvonnet2004 (assist)

  24. ^

    Poole, Steven (7 March 2007). “Jean Baudrillard. Philosopher and sociologist who blurred the boundaries between reality and simulation”.
    The Guardian. London, England.

  25. ^

    In 1948, he completed his
    diplôme d’études supérieures [fr]

    (roughly equivalent to an MA thesis) on Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther (see Journées Jean Baudrillard Musée du quai Branly Paris 17-18/09/2010).
  26. ^




    50’Yvonnet (2004), pp. 317–328.
    sfnp error: no target: CITEREFL’Yvonnet2004 (assist)

  27. ^

    Chris Turner’s introduction to
    The Intelligence of Evil, Berg (2005), p. 2.

  28. ^

    Simmons, Arthur (1982).
    French Philosophers in the 20th Century, p. nine. MacMillan, London.

  29. ^

    cf. Barry Sandywell’s article “Forget Baudrillard”, in
    Theory, Culture and Order
    (1995, outcome 12)

  30. ^

    Jean Baudrillard Kinesthesia page at European Graduate School

  31. ^

    “Baudrillard Studies”. Retrieved
    17 August

  32. ^

    Fifty’Yvonnet (2004), p. 319.
    sfnp error: no target: CITEREFL’Yvonnet2004 (help)

  33. ^




    “Reinventing the Real: A Conversation with Marine Dupuis Baudrillard …past Tomasso Fagioli and Eleonora de Conciliis, Kritikos V.xv, Summer 2018”. Archived from the original on 2021. Retrieved
    18 November

  34. ^



    “Jean Baudrillard”.
    The Contained. nine March 2007. Retrieved
    18 November

  35. ^

    Samoyault, Tiphaine (13 Jan 2017).
    Barthes: A Biography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN978-1-5095-0569-2.

  36. ^

    “Jean Baudrillard — Wikipédia”.
    (in French). Retrieved
    21 December

  37. ^

    “Marine Dupuis Baudrillard”.
    Delere Press
    . Retrieved
    18 November

  38. ^

    Peter Pericles Trifonas,
    Barthes and the Empire of Signs, Icon (2001).

  39. ^

    see here Baudrillard’s final major publication in English,
    The Intelligence of Evil, where he discussed the political fallout of what he calls “Integral Reality”

  40. ^

    Baudrillard, Jean. 1985.
    The Perfect Criminal offence. London: Verso Books.

  41. ^

    see here
    The Transparency of Evil, Verso (1993)
  42. ^



    Baudrillard, Jean. 1983.
    For a Critique of the Political Economic system of the Sign. London: Verso Books. ISBN 9781788734844.

  43. ^

    Kvas, Kornelije (2020).
    The Boundaries of Realism in World Literature. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Lexington Books. p. 13. ISBN978-1-7936-0910-half dozen.

  44. ^

    Baudrillard, Jean. “Simulacra and Simulations: I. The Precession of Simulacra”.
    European Graduate School. Translated past S. F. Glaser. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010.

  45. ^

    https://spider Retrieved 14 March 2022. “Virtuality and Events: The Hell of Ability” ISSN 1705-6411. Jean Baudrillard. Translated by Chris Turner. From
    The Intelligence of Evil or the Lucidity Pact.

  46. ^

    Baudrillard, Jean (1994).
    The Illusion of the End. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. p. 263. ISBN978-0804725019.

  47. ^

    The Illusion of the End, p. two.

  48. ^

    Baudrillard, Jean. “The Violence of the Global,” translated by F. Debrix.
    European Graduate School. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010.

  49. ^

    Baudrillard, Jean; Petterson, James (1996). “No Pity for Sarajevo; The W’due south Serbianization; When the West Stands In for the Dead”.
    This Time Nosotros Knew. NYU Press. pp. 79–89. JSTOR j.ctt9qfngn.7.

  50. ^





    Baudrillard, Jean. 2004 [1991].
    The Gulf War Did Not Take Place.
  51. ^



    Baudrillard, Jean. [2001] 2010. “The Spirit of Terrorism,” translated by R. Bloul. European Graduate School. Archived 25 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

  52. ^

    Latour, Bruno (2004). “Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Business”
    Critical Research.
    (2): 228. doi:10.1086/421123. S2CID 159523434. Retrieved
    12 October

  53. ^







    Baudrillard, Jean. [2007] 2010.
    The Agony of Ability, translated by A. Hodges, Semiotext(e) Intervention Serial vi. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e). ISBN 9781584350927.
  54. ^



    Poster, Mark. 2002. “Introduction” in
    Jean Baudrillard: Selected Writings
    (2nd ed.), edited by G. Poster. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804742733.

  55. ^

    Norris, Christopher.
    Uncritical Theory: Postmodernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf War.
    ISBN 0-87023-817-5.

  56. ^

    Kellner, Douglas. Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond. ISBN 0-8047-1757-5.

  57. ^

    Zurbrugg, Nicholas.
    Jean Baudrillard: Art and Artefact.

  58. ^

    Raheja, Michelle (Leap 2001). “Postindian Conversations (review)”.
    The American Indian Quarterly.
    (ii): 324–325. doi:10.1353/aiq.2001.0027. S2CID 161353983.

  59. ^

    Adam Gopnik, “The Unreal Thing”,
    The New Yorker
    19 May 2003

  60. ^

    Genosko, Gary; Bryx, Adam, eds. (July 2004). “The Matrix Decoded:
    Le Nouvel Observateur
    Interview With Jean Baudrillard”.
    International Periodical of Baudrillard Studies. Quebec, Canada: Bishop’s University, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology.
    (two). ISSN 1705-6411. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved
    10 January

  61. ^

    “Le Nouvel Observateur with Baudrillard”.
    Le Nouvel Observateur. Archived from the original on thirteen January 2008. Retrieved
    23 Baronial

  62. ^

    Staples, Brent (24 May 2002). “Editorial Observer; A French Philosopher Talks Back to Hollywood and ‘The Matrix’“.
    The New York Times.

  63. ^

    Manohla Dargis, “Dreamer, Alive in the Hither and At present” (review of
    The New York Times, 23 Oct 2008.

  64. ^

    Strong, Benjamin (13 November 2008). “Synecdoche, New York: Welcome to the Simulacra – New York – Music – Sound of the City”.
    Village Vocalization Blogs. Archived from the original on xiv May 2013. Retrieved
    17 Baronial

  65. ^

    Hoby, Hermione (13 May 2009). “The ultimate postmodern novel is a film”.
    The Guardian.

  66. ^

    “Deerhunter / Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared?”. 22 January 2019.

  67. ^

    “Reseña: Deerhunter /// Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared?”. 30 January 2019.

  68. ^

    “Deerhunter Why Hasn’t Everything Already Disappeared? | Exclaim!”.

  69. ^

    Baudrillard, “Fatal Strategies”, “Ironic Strategies” Published past Semiotext(eastward) Translated by Philippe Beitchman and W. M. J. Niesluchowsk

External links


  • Jean Baudrillard Biography. Archived from the original on 20 Dec 2009. Faculty page at European Graduate School (biography, bibliography, photos and videos).
  • Kellner, Douglas. “Jean Baudrillard”. In Zalta, Edward North. (ed.).
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

  • Baudrillard, Jean (11 Apr 2008).
    Fatal Strategies. Semiotext(e) / Foreign Agents (New ed.). Semiotext(e). ISBN9781584350613.

  • Jean Baudrillard (1981; translated 1994 by Sheila Glaser), Simulacra and Simulation, archived from the original on 21 May 2013.
  • Baudrillard; Cultura, Simulacro y régimen de mortandad en el Sistema de los Objetos | EIKASIA PDF (in Spanish) Adolfo Vásquez Rocca
  • “The world of Jean Baudrillard”. Retrieved
    17 August

  • International Journal of Baudrillard Studies.
    Retrieved ix March
  • Cool Memories, association of Baudrillard’s friends
  • Salary’s Essays/Of Simulation and Dissimulation past Anglican philosopher Francis Bacon