Nef To Dng Converter Free Download

By | 05/11/2022

File format used in digital photography

Raw image file
Filename extension

.ari, .arw,
.braw, .crw, .cr2, .cr3,
.data, .dcs, .dcr, .dng,
.eip, .erf,
.k25, .kdc,
.mdc, .mef, .mos, .mrw,
.nef, .nrw,
.obm, .orf,
.pef, .ptx, .pxn,
.r3d, .raf, .raw, .rwl, .rw2, .rwz,
.sr2, .srf, .srw,

Type of format Image file formats

A photographic camera
raw epitome file
contains unprocessed or minimally processed information from the image sensor of either a digital photographic camera, a motion picture film scanner, or other image scanner.[i]
Raw files are named then considering they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to exist printed, viewed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. Normally, the paradigm is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal colour infinite where precise adjustments can be made earlier conversion to a viewable file format such as JPEG or PNG for storage, press, or further manipulation. In that location are dozens of raw formats in use past different manufacturers of digital image capture equipment.



Raw image files are sometimes incorrectly described as “digital negatives”, merely neither are they negatives nor practice the unprocessed files constitute visible images. Rather, the Raw datasets are more like exposed but undeveloped film which can exist converted (electronically developed) in a not-subversive style multiple times in appreciable, reversible steps to reach a visually desired paradigm. (With exposed film, development is a unmarried event that physically transforms the unexposed film irreversibly.)

Similar undeveloped photographic motion-picture show, a raw digital paradigm may have a wider dynamic range or color gamut than the developed motion-picture show or impress. Unlike physical film after development, the Raw file preserves the information captured at the time of exposure. The purpose of raw epitome formats is to salve, with minimum loss of information, data obtained from the sensor.

Raw prototype formats are intended to capture the radiometric characteristics of the scene, that is, concrete information nigh the light intensity and color of the scene, at the best of the camera sensor’s performance. Most raw image file formats shop information sensed co-ordinate to the geometry of the sensor’southward individual photo-receptive elements (sometimes chosen pixels) rather than points in the expected last paradigm: sensors with hexagonal element displacement, for case, record information for each of their hexagonally-displaced cells, which a decoding software will eventually transform into the rectangular geometry during “digital developing”.

File contents


Raw files incorporate the information required to produce a viewable image from the camera’s sensor data. The structure of raw files ofttimes follows a common pattern:

  • A brusk file header which typically contains an indicator of the byte-ordering of the file, a file identifier and an outset into the main file information
  • Camera sensor metadata which is required to translate the sensor prototype data, including the size of the sensor, the attributes of the CFA and its color profile
  • Image metadata which tin exist useful for inclusion in any CMS surroundings or database. These include the exposure settings, camera/scanner/lens model, date (and, optionally, place) of shoot/scan, authoring information and other. Some raw files incorporate a standardized metadata section with data in Exif format.
  • An image thumbnail
  • Most raw files contain a total size JPEG conversion of the paradigm, which is used to preview the file on the photographic camera’s LCD panel.
  • In the example of motion picture picture show scans, either the timecode, keycode or frame number in the file sequence which represents the frame sequence in a scanned reel. This item allows the file to be ordered in a frame sequence (without relying on its filename).
  • The sensor image data

Many raw file formats, including IIQ (Phase One), 3FR (Hasselblad), DCR, K25, KDC (Kodak), CRW CR2 CR3 (Canon), ERF (Epson), MEF (Mamiya), MOS (Foliage), NEF NRW (Nikon), ORF (Olympus), PEF (Pentax), RW2 (Panasonic) and ARW, SRF, SR2 (Sony), are based on TIFF, the Tagged Image File Format.[3]
These files may deviate from the TIFF standard in a number of ways, including the use of a non-standard file header, the inclusion of boosted image tags and the encryption of some of the tagged data.

Panasonic’s raw converter corrects geometric distortion and chromatic aberration on such cameras as the LX3,[iv]
with necessary correction information presumably included in the raw.[seven]
Stage One’s raw converter Capture One as well offers corrections for geometrical distortion, chromatic aberration, royal fringing and keystone correction emulating the shift capability of tilt-shift in software and specially designed hardware, on most raw files from over 100 dissimilar cameras.[8]
The same holds for Canon’s DPP application, at least for all more expensive cameras like all EOS DSLRs and the One thousand series of meaty cameras.

DNG, the Adobe digital negative format, is an extension of the TIFF 6.0 format and is uniform with TIFF/EP, and uses various open formats and/or standards, including Exif metadata, XMP metadata, IPTC metadata, CIE XYZ coordinates, ICC profiles, and JPEG.[x]

Sensor paradigm data


In digital photography, the raw file plays the role that photographic motion picture plays in film photography. Raw files thus contain the full resolution (typically 12- or xiv-bit) data equally read out from each of the camera’s paradigm sensor pixels.

The photographic camera’s sensor is most invariably overlaid with a color filter array (CFA), usually a Bayer filter, consisting of a mosaic of a 2×2 matrix of red, green, blue and (2nd) greenish filters.

One variation on the Bayer filter is the RGBE filter of the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F828, which exchanged the green in the RG rows with “emerald”[eleven]
(a blueish-green[12]
or cyan[13]
color). Other sensors, such as the Foveon X3 sensor, capture information directly in RGB course (using three pixel sensors in each location). This RGB raw information still needs to exist processed to make an epitome file, considering the raw RGB values stand for to the responses of the sensors, not to a standard colour space like sRGB. Equally in that location is no color filter assortment, in that location is no need for demosaicing.

Flatbed and film scanner sensors are typically direct narrow RGB or RGBI (where “I” stands for the boosted infrared channel for automatic dust removal) strips that are swept across an epitome. The HDRi raw data format is able to shop the infrared raw data, which can be used for infrared cleaning, as an additional 16-chip channel. The remainder of the discussion almost raw files applies to them likewise. Some scanners do not permit the host system admission to the raw data at all, equally a speed compromise. The raw data are processed very speedily within the scanner to select out the all-time role of the available dynamic range so only the effect is passed to the computer for permanent storage, reducing the corporeality of data transferred and therefore the bandwidth requirement for any given speed of image throughput.[
citation needed

To obtain an image from a raw file, this mosaic of information must exist converted into standard RGB course. This is frequently referred to equally “raw development”.

When converting from the four-sensor 2×2 Bayer-matrix raw form into RGB pixels, the light-green pair is used to control the luminance detail of the processed output pixel, while the red and blueish, which each have half every bit many samples, are used mostly for the more slowly-varying blush component of the prototype.

If raw format information is available, information technology can be used in high-dynamic-range imaging conversion, as a simpler alternative to the multi-exposure HDI arroyo of capturing three separate images, one underexposed, i right and one overexposed, and “overlaying” ane on top of the other.



Providing a detailed and concise description of the content of raw files is highly problematic. There is no single raw format; formats tin can be like or radically different. Different manufacturers use their ain proprietary and typically undocumented formats, which are collectively known as raw format. Often they as well change the format from ane camera model to the next. Several major camera manufacturers, including Nikon, Catechism and Sony, encrypt portions of the file in an attempt to prevent third-party tools from accessing them.[fourteen]

This industry-wide situation of inconsistent formatting has concerned many photographers who worry that their valuable raw photos may someday get inaccessible, as estimator operating systems and software programs get obsolete and abandoned raw formats are dropped from new software. The availability of loftier-quality open source software which decodes raw paradigm formats, particularly dcraw, has helped to convalesce these concerns. An essay by Michael Reichmann and Juergen Specht stated “here are 2 solutions – the adoption by the photographic camera industry of A: Public documentation of RAW
formats; by, nowadays and future, or, more likely B: Adoption of a universal RAW
“Planning for [United states of america] Library of Congress Collections” identifies raw-file formats as “less desirable file formats”, and identifies DNG as a suggested alternative.[18]

DNG is the just raw prototype format for which industry-broad buy-in is beingness sought. It is based upon, and uniform with, the ISO standard raw paradigm format ISO 12234-2, TIFF/EP, and is being used by ISO in their revision of that standard.

The ISO standard raw image format is ISO 12234-2, amend known every bit TIFF/EP. (TIFF/EP also supports “non-raw”, or “processed”, images). TIFF/EP provided a basis for the raw image formats of a number of cameras. For example, Nikon’due south NEF raw files are based on TIFF/EP, and include a tag which identifies the version of TIFF/EP they are based on.[19]
Adobe’due south DNG raw file format was based on TIFF/EP, and the DNG specification states “DNG … is compatible with the TIFF-EP standard”.[xx]
Several cameras use DNG as their raw prototype format, so in that express sense they employ TIFF/EP too.[21]

Adobe Systems launched this DNG raw image format in September 2004. By September 2006, several photographic camera manufacturers had started to announce support for DNG in newer camera models, including Leica, Samsung, Ricoh, Pentax, Hasselblad (native camera support); and, Meliorate Light (export).[22]
The Leica Digital-Modul-R (DMR) was commencement to use DNG every bit its native format.[23]
In September 2009 Adobe stated that there were no known intellectual holding encumbrances or license requirements for DNG.[24]
In that location is a “Digital Negative (DNG) Specification Patent License”,[25]
merely information technology does not actually state that there
whatsoever patents held on DNG, and the September 2009 statement was made at least iv years later on this license was published.

TIFF/EP began its 5-yr revision bicycle in 2006.[26]
Adobe offered the DNG specification to ISO to exist office of ISO’s revised TIFF/EP standard.[27]
A progress report in October 2008 from ISO well-nigh the revision of TIFF/EP stated that the revision “… currently includes two “interoperability-profiles,” “IP 1” for processed image data, using “.TIF” extension, and “IP two” for “raw” image data, “.DNG” extension”.[29]
Information technology is “IP 2” that is relevant here. A progress report in September 2009 states that “This format will be similar to DNG 1.3, which serves as the starting point for development.”[xxx]

DNG has been used by open-source developers.[14]
Apply by photographic camera makers varies: the largest companies such every bit Catechism, Nikon, Sony, and some others, do not use DNG. Smaller companies and makers of “niche” cameras who might otherwise take difficulty getting back up from software companies frequently utilize DNG as their native raw image format. Pentax uses DNG as an optional culling to their own raw image format. At that place are 15 or more than such companies, even including a few that specialize in motion-picture show cameras.[21]
In addition, most Canon betoken & shoot cameras can back up DNG by using CHDK.

Catechism Raw v2 (CR2) is mostly based on TIFF
and lossless Jpeg ITU-T81.[32]

Canon Raw v3 (CR3)[33]
is based on ISO Base of operations Media File Format (ISO/IEC 14496-12), with custom tags, and unknown “crx” codec.

Sony Alpha RAW (ARW)[34]
is based on TIFF file format, proprietary Makernote fields and compressions methods.



To exist viewed or printed, the output from a camera’south paradigm sensor has to be processed, that is, converted to a photographic rendering of the scene, and then stored in a standard raster graphics format such as JPEG. This processing, whether washed in-camera or later on in a raw-file converter, involves a number of operations, typically including:[35]

  • decoding – image data of raw files are typically encoded for pinch purpose, but besides often for obfuscation purpose (eastward.g. raw files from Canon[37]
    or Nikon cameras).[38]
  • demosaicing – interpolating the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor into a matrix of colored pixels.
  • lacking pixel removal – replacing data in known bad locations with interpolations from nearby locations
  • white balancing – accounting for colour temperature of the light that was used to accept the photograph
  • noise reduction – trading off item for smoothness past removing pocket-sized fluctuations
  • colour translation – converting from the camera native color infinite defined by the spectral sensitivities of the image sensor to an output color space (typically sRGB for JPEG)
  • tone reproduction[39]
    [forty] – the scene luminance captured by the camera sensors and stored in the raw file (with a dynamic range of typically x or more bits) needs to be rendered for pleasing effect and right viewing on low-dynamic-range monitors or prints; the tone-reproduction rendering often includes separate tone mapping and gamma compression steps.
  • compression – for example JPEG compression

Demosaicing is just performed for CFA sensors; it is not required for 3CCD or Foveon X3 sensors.

Cameras and paradigm processing software may besides perform boosted processing to ameliorate prototype quality, for instance:

  • removal of systematic noise – bias frame subtraction and flat-field correction
  • dark frame subtraction
  • optical correction – lens distortion, vignetting, chromatic abnormality and color fringing correction
  • contrast manipulation
  • increasing visual acuity past unsharp masking
  • dynamic range pinch – lighten shadow regions without blowing out highlight regions

The raw file (left) before highlight and shadow details were recovered using the levels tool (right)

When a camera saves a raw file it defers most of this processing; typically the but processing performed is the removal of lacking pixels (the DNG specification requires that defective pixels exist removed before creating the file[41]). Some camera manufacturers do additional processing before saving raw files; for example, Nikon has been criticized by astrophotographers for applying racket reduction before saving the raw file.[42]

Some raw formats also allow nonlinear quantization.[43]
This nonlinearity allows the compression of the raw data without visible degradation of the epitome past removing invisible and irrelevant information from the image. Although noise is discarded this has nothing to practise with (visible) noise reduction.[
commendation needed



Well-nigh all digital cameras can procedure the image from the sensor into a JPEG file using settings for white residue, color saturation, dissimilarity, and sharpness that are either selected automatically or entered by the lensman before taking the pic. Cameras that produce raw files salvage these settings in the file, but defer the processing. This results in an extra step for the photographer, and so raw is unremarkably only used when additional computer processing is intended. Nonetheless, raw has numerous advantages over JPEG such equally:

  • Many more shades of colors compared to JPEG files – raw files have 12 or 14 bits of intensity information per channel (4096-16384 shades), compared to JPEG’s gamma-compressed eight bits (256 shades).
  • College image quality. Because all the calculations (such equally applying gamma correction, demosaicing, white remainder, effulgence, dissimilarity, etc…) used to generate pixel values (in RGB format for most images) are performed in one step on the base data, the resultant pixel values will be more than accurate and exhibit less posterization.
  • Bypassing of undesired steps in the photographic camera’s processing, including sharpening and dissonance reduction
  • JPEG images are typically saved using a lossy pinch format (though a lossless JPEG compression is now available). Raw formats typically apply lossless compression or loftier-quality lossy compression.
  • Effectively command. Raw conversion software allows users to manipulate more parameters (such as lightness, white balance, hue, saturation, etc…) and do so with greater variability. For example, the white indicate can be set to any value, not only discrete preset values similar “daylight” or “incandescent”. Furthermore, the user tin typically encounter a preview while adjusting these parameters.
  • The color space can exist set to any is desired.
  • Different demosaicing algorithms can be used, not simply the 1 coded into the camera.
  • The contents of raw files include more data, and potentially higher quality, than the converted results, in which the rendering parameters are stock-still, the color gamut is clipped, and there may exist quantization and compression artifacts.
  • Big transformations of the information, such as increasing the exposure of a dramatically under-exposed photograph, result in fewer visible artifacts when done from raw information than when washed from already rendered image files. Raw data leave more scope for both corrections and creative manipulations, without resulting in images with visible flaws such as posterization.
  • All the changes made on a raw paradigm file are non-subversive; that is, only the metadata that controls the rendering is changed to make dissimilar output versions, leaving the original data unchanged.
  • To some extent, raw-format photography eliminates the demand to utilise the HDRI technique, allowing a much meliorate command over the mapping of the scene intensity range into the output tonal range, compared to the process of automatically mapping to JPEG or other 8-bit representation.



  • Photographic camera raw file size is typically ii–6 times larger than JPEG file size.[45]
    While use of raw formats avoids the compression artifacts inherent in JPEG, fewer images can fit on a given retentiveness bill of fare. However, the big sizes and low prices of modern retention cards mitigate this. Burst style shooting tends to be slower and shorter due to the larger file size.
  • Most raw formats implement lossless data compression to reduce the size of the files without affecting image quality. But some others use lossy data compression where quantization and filtering is performed on the image information.[43]
    Sony’due south lossy 11+7 bit delta pinch of raw data causes posterization under certain conditions.[46]
    Several Nikon cameras allow photographers choose between no compression, lossless compression or lossy compression for their raw images. Red Digital Movie house Camera Visitor introduced
    Redcode Raw with compression ratio from 3:1 to 18:i which depends on resolution and frame rates.[47]
  • The standard raw image format (ISO 12234-2, TIFF/EP) is not widely accepted. DNG, the potential candidate for a new standard format, has not been adopted by many major photographic camera companies. (See “Standardization” section.) Numerous different raw formats are currently in use and new raw formats continue appearing, while others are abandoned.[48]
  • Because of the lack of widespread adoption of a standard raw format, more specialized software may exist required to open raw files than for standardized formats like JPEG or TIFF. Software developers accept to ofttimes update their products to support the raw formats of the latest cameras but open source implementations like dcraw make it easier
  • The time taken in the paradigm workflow is an important factor when choosing between raw and set up-to-utilise image formats. With mod photograph editing software the additional fourth dimension needed to procedure raw images has been greatly reduced but information technology still requires an actress stride in workflow in comparison with using out-of-camera JPEGs.

Software back up


Cameras that support raw files typically come with proprietary software for conversion of their raw prototype data into standard RGB images. Other processing and conversion programs and plugins are available from vendors that have either licensed the applied science from the camera manufacturer or opposite-engineered the detail raw format and provided their own processing algorithms.

Operating organisation support


Apple macOS and iOS


In January 2005, Apple released iPhoto 5, which offered basic support for viewing and editing many raw file formats.

In Apr 2005, Apple’s Os Ten 10.4 brought raw support to the operating organisation’s ImageIO framework, enabling raw support automatically in the majority of macOS applications both from Apple (such as Preview, macOS’s PDF and image viewing application, and Aperture, a photo mail service-production software package for professionals) too equally all third party applications which make use of the ImageIO frameworks.

Semi-regular updates to macOS more often than not include updated support for new raw formats introduced in the intervening months by camera manufacturers.

In 2016, Apple announced that iOS 10 would allow capturing raw images on selected hardware, and third party applications volition be able to edit raw images through the operating system’s Core Epitome framework.[49]

In 2020, Apple released the iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max. Both of these devices support Apple ProRAW (as of iOS 16.0.3). ProRAW photos are 12 flake DNG files.

Microsoft Windows


Windows Photographic camera Codec Pack


Microsoft supplies the gratuitous Windows Camera Codec Pack for Windows XP and later versions of Microsoft Windows, to integrate raw file viewing and press into some Microsoft Windows tools.[50]
The codecs allow native viewing of raw files from a variety of specific cameras in Windows Explorer / File Explorer and Windows Live Photo Gallery / Windows Photo Gallery, in Windows Vista and Windows 7.[51]
As of October 2016, Microsoft had not released an updated version since April 2014, which supported some specific cameras by the following manufacturers: Catechism, Casio, Epson, Fujifilm, Kodak, Konica Minolta, Leica, Nikon, Olympus, Panasonic, Pentax,Samsung, and Sony. For windows 10 this was essentially replaced in 2019 by Microsoft Raw Image Extension.[51]

Raw Epitome Extension


Microsoft as of 2019 supplies the free Raw Prototype Extension for Windows x and later on versions of Microsoft Windows, to integrate raw file viewing and press into some Microsoft Windows tools.[52]
The Extension allows native viewing of raw files from many mid- to high-end digital cameras in Windows Explorer / File Explorer and Microsoft Photos.

Windows Imaging Component (WIC)


Microsoft Windows supports the Windows Imaging Component (WIC) codec standard. WIC was available as a stand-solitary downloadable programme for Windows XP Service Pack 2, and built into Windows XP Service Pack iii, Windows Vista, and later versions. Windows Explorer / File Explorer, and Windows Live Photo Gallery / Windows Photo Gallery can view raw formats for which the necessary WIC codecs are installed. Canon, Nikon, Sony, Olympus and Pentax have released WIC codecs for their cameras, although some manufactures only provide codec support for the 32-flake versions of Microsoft Windows.[53]

Commercial DNG WIC codecs are as well available from Ardfry Imaging,[54]
and others; and FastPictureViewer Professional installs a set up of WIC-enabled image decoders.[55]



Android Lollipop 5.0, introduced in belatedly 2014, can let smartphones to have raw images, useful in low-light situations.[57]

Costless and open up source software


  • darktable is a raw-workflow tool for macOS, Microsoft Windows, Linux and other open Unix-like operating systems. The software features native 32-bit floating-point processing and a plugin architecture.
  • dcraw is a program which reads most raw formats and tin be made to run on operating systems not supported by nigh commercial software (such as Unix). LibRaw[58]
    is an API library based on dcraw, offering a more convenient interface for reading and converting raw files. HDR PhotoStudio and AZImage[59]
    are some of the commercial applications that apply Libraw. Jrawio is some other API library, written in pure Coffee lawmaking and compliant to the standard Coffee Image I/O API.
  • digiKam is an advanced digital photo management application for Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Mac OS X that supports raw processing.
  • ExifTool supports the reading, writing and editing of metadata in raw image files. ExifTool supports many different types of metadata including Exif, GPS, IPTC, XMP, JFIF, GeoTIFF, ICC Contour, Photoshop IRB, FlashPix, AFCP and ID3, as well equally the maker notes of many digital cameras.
  • ImageMagick, a software suite for image manipulation and conversion, reads many unlike raw file formats.[threescore]
    ImageMagick is bachelor for Linux/Unix, Mac Bone, Microsoft Windows, and other platforms.
  • LightZone is a photograph editing program providing the ability to edit many raw formats natively. Most tools are raw converters, merely LightZone allows a user to edit a raw file as if it were TIFF or JPEG. The project was discontinued in September 2011[61]
    and reinstated as an open source project in December 2012.
  • Rawstudio is a raw format developer.
  • RawTherapee is a raw developer supporting Linux, OS 10 and Microsoft Windows operating systems. It features a native 32-bit floating point pipeline.
  • Shotwell is an prototype organizer bachelor for all major operating systems with the ability to view and edit raw images and has built-in social networking upload capability.
  • UFRaw is a frontend which uses dcraw as a back finish. Information technology can be used as a GIMP plugin and is bachelor for about operating systems.

Proprietary software


In add-on to those listed under operating system support, above, the commercial software described below support raw formats.

Defended raw converters


The following products were launched as raw processing software to process a wide range of raw files, and accept this as their main purpose:

  • Adobe Camera Raw – used internally past various Adobe Products for raw processing, and as the raw engine in Lightroom.[62]
  • Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
  • Corel AfterShot Pro (formerly Bibble Pro)
  • Capture 1[63]
  • DxO PhotoLab (formerly DxO Optics Pro)
  • Hasselblad’s Phocus relies on operating system support to process non-Hasselblad files
  • Photograph Ninja
  • Silkypix Developer Studio
  • Raw Ability.[64]
    A macOS raw processing application and Apple Photos extension.



  • ACDSee Pro is photo management and editing software that supports the raw formats of 21 photographic camera manufacturers.[65]
  • Adobe Bridge is photo management software that supports the raw formats and converting.
  • Adobe Photoshop supports raw formats (as of version CS2).
  • Affinity Photo supports raw formats.
  • Blackmagic Pattern DaVinci Resolve
  • DNG Viewer
    is a free (32bit) viewer for Microsoft Windows based on dcraw. The very simple viewer is installed as
    RAW Image Viewer, supports some lossless operations, and tin can salve raw images equally BMP, JPEG, PNG, or TIFF.[66]
  • FastRawViewer is a dedicated raw viewer that runs on Mac and Microsoft Windows, and currently claims to support all raw formats except Foveon.[67]
  • Helicon Filter supports raw formats.
  • IrfanView is a freeware/shareware basic editor with support for raw files.
  • Konvertor support for raw formats is based on dcraw.[
    citation needed
  • Paint Shop Pro contains raw support, although as in the case of most editors updates to the plan may be necessary to accomplish compatibility with newer raw formats every bit they are released.
  • PhotoLine supports raw formats.
  • Picasa (development discontinued) is a gratuitous editor and organizer from Google. It tin read and display many raw formats, simply like iPhoto, Picasa provides only limited tools for processing the data in a raw file.
  • Silverish B&W Photo Converter
    offers basic back up for editing raw file formats supported by macOS.
  • SilverFast supports raw formats.
  • Utiful Photo Organizer is a photo organizing app for iPhone and iPad that supports raw formats, i.eastward. it tin shop and display raw formats but also export them in the original raw format likewise.
  • Wild Media Server (UPnP, DLNA, HTTP)
    support for raw formats is based on libraw.
  • Transloadit is a Software every bit a service that supports converting raw files into other formats
  • XnView back up for raw formats is mostly based on dcraw.

HTML5 browser-based apps


A new class of raw file processing tools appeared with the development of HTML5 – rich Internet applications.

  • is able to render and utilize basic adjustments to raw and DNG files.

Raw filename extensions and respective camera manufacturers or standard


  • .3fr (Hasselblad)
  • .ari (Arri Alexa)
  • .arw .srf .sr2 (Sony)
  • .bay (Casio)
  • .braw (Blackmagic Design)
  • .cri (Cintel)
  • .crw .cr2 .cr3 (Canon)
  • .cap .iiq .eip (Phase_One)
  • .dcs .dcr .drf .k25 .kdc (Kodak)
  • .dng (Adobe)
  • .erf (Epson)
  • .fff (Imacon/Hasselblad raw)
  • .gpr (GoPro)
  • .jxs (JPEG XS Bayer profile)
  • .mef (Mamiya)
  • .mdc (Minolta, Agfa)
  • .mos (Leafage)
  • .mrw (Minolta, Konica Minolta)
  • .nef .nrw (Nikon)
  • .orf (Olympus)
  • .pef .ptx (Pentax)
  • .pxn (Logitech)
  • .R3D (RED Digital Cinema)
  • .raf (Fuji)
  • .raw .rw2 (Panasonic)
  • .raw .rwl .dng (Leica)
  • .rwz (Rawzor)
  • .srw (Samsung)
  • .tco (intoPIX)
  • .x3f (Sigma)

Raw bitmap files


Less commonly, raw may also refer to a generic prototype file format containing only pixel color values. For example, “Photoshop Raw” files (.raw) incorporate 8-bits-per-aqueduct RGB data in height-to-lesser, left-to-correct pixel society. Dimensions must exist input manually when such files are re-opened, or a foursquare image is assumed. Due to its simplicity, this format is very open and compatible, though express by its lack of metadata and run-length encoding. Particularly in photography and graphic design, where colour direction and extended gamuts are important, and big images are common.

See also


  • List of cameras supporting a raw format
  • Raw sound format



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  2. ^

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  4. ^

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    “Panasonic LX3 Lens Baloney”. Archived from the original on 2008-10-24. Retrieved

  7. ^

    Panasonic Lumix LX7 Review – Imaging Resource

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  9. ^

    “Stage I Capture One 6 Pro Review”. ePhotoZine. Retrieved
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    Adobe: DNG Specification

  11. ^

    “Realization of natural color reproduction in Digital Withal Cameras, closer to the natural sight perception of the human center”.

  12. ^

    “Sony Nihon announces new RGB+E prototype sensors”. July 16, 2003.

  13. ^

    “Sony announce new RGBE CCD”. fifteen July 2003.

  14. ^



    “Raw storm in a teacup?”. 2005-04-27. Retrieved

    Dave Bury, creator of the dcraw program, discusses some of his successful opposite-engineering in this interview, and mentions his enthusiasm for the DNG format.

  15. ^

    Reichmann, Michael; Specht, Juergen (May 2005). “The RAW Flaw (at The Luminous Landscape)”. Archived from the original on 2010-01-08. Retrieved

  16. ^

    Reichmann, Michael; Specht, Juergen (May 2005). “The RAW Flaw (at The Luminous Landscape)”. Archived from the original
    on 2012-09-twenty.

  17. ^

    Reichmann, Michael; Specht, Juergen (May 2005). “The RAW Flaw (at The Luminous Landscape)”
    (PDF). Archived from the original
    on 2011-01-06.

  18. ^

    Planning for US Library of Congress Collections: Preferences in Summary

  19. ^

    Barry Pearson: What is in a raw file?

  20. ^

    Adobe: DNG Specification (June 2009) (scroll down a flake)
  21. ^



    Barry Pearson: Products from Camera Manufacturers that apply DNG in some way

  22. ^

    Barry Pearson: DNG back up, to end-September 2006

  23. ^

    Barry Pearson: A cursory history of DNG

  24. ^

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External links


  • Adobe: Agreement Raw Files”; background on how camera sensors care for raw files
  • Open RAW: a working group of photographers, software engineers and other people interested in advocating the open up documentation of digital camera raw files
  • Atkins, Bob: “Raw, JPEG, and TIFF”; common file formats compared.
  • Coupe, Adam: “The benefits of shooting in RAW”; Article with diagrams explaining raw information and its advantages.
  • Goldstein, Jim M.: “RAW vs JPEG: Is Shooting RAW Format for Me? Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Car”; an editorial.
  • Basic Photography lesson in Camera Raw A pros and cons approach to the word of shooting in Photographic camera Raw
  • Clevy, Laurent: “Inside the Canon RAW format v2: understanding the .CR2 file format”
  • Foi, Alessandro: “Signal-dependent racket modeling, estimation, and removal for digital imaging sensors”; with Matlab software and raw-data samples of Catechism, Nikon, Fujifilm cameras.
  • Clevy, Laurent: “Describing the Canon Raw v3 (CR3) file format”