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Art, science and practice of creating durable images past recording light or other electromagnetic radiations


Lens and mounting of a large-format camera

Other names Science or art of creating durable images
Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation
Inventor Louis Daguerre (1839)

Henry Fox Talbot (1839)
Related Stereoscopic, Total-spectrum, Light field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

is the art, application, and practise of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an paradigm sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic picture. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.1000., photolithography), and business organization, too as its more straight uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.[i]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a existent image on the low-cal-sensitive surface within a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical accuse at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The effect with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically “developed” into a visible prototype, either negative or positive, depending on the purpose of the photographic fabric and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known equally a print, either past using an enlarger or by contact printing.



The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtós), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “light”[2]
and γραφή (graphé) “representation by means of lines” or “cartoon”,[3]
together pregnant “cartoon with light”.[4]

Several people may take coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French grade of the word,
photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[5]
This claim is widely reported simply is not all the same largely recognized internationally. The first use of the word past the Franco-Brazilian inventor became widely known subsequently the inquiry of Boris Kossoy in 1980.[6]

The High german newspaper
Vossische Zeitung
of 25 February 1839 contained an commodity entitled
Photographie, discussing several priority claims – specially Henry Play tricks Talbot’southward – regarding Daguerre’southward claim of invention.[7]
The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print.[viii]
It was signed “J.M.”, believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[9]
The astronomer Sir John Herschel is as well credited with coining the word, independent of Talbot, in 1839.[10]

The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Pull a fast one on Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word “photography”, but referred to their processes as “Heliography” (Niépce), “Photogenic Drawing”/”Talbotype”/”Calotype” (Talbot) and “Daguerreotype” (Daguerre).[9]



Precursor technologies


A camera obscura used for drawing

Photography is the outcome of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura (“dark chamber” in Latin) that provides an image of a scene dates back to aboriginal People’s republic of china. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a camera obscura in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[11]
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.[13]

The Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) also invented a camera obscura besides every bit the first true pinhole camera.[12]
The invention of the camera has been traced back to the work of Ibn al-Haytham.[16]
While the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole had been described earlier,[xvi]
Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the camera obscura,[17]
including the first geometrical and quantitative descriptions of the phenomenon,[xviii]
and was the first to utilize a screen in a nighttime room so that an image from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected onto a screen on the other side.[19]
He also kickoff understood the relationship between the focal point and the pinhole,[20]
and performed early experiments with afterimages, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century.[fifteen]

Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camerae obscurae that are formed past dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A pigsty in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside downwardly image on a piece of newspaper. Renaissance painters used the photographic camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in colour that dominates Western Art. It is a box with a small-scale hole in one side, which allows specific low-cal rays to enter, projecting an inverted image onto a viewing screen or paper.

The birth of photography was and so concerned with inventing ways to capture and go along the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[21]
and Georg Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silver chloride,[22]
and the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.[23]

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[25]
Wilhelm Homberg described how calorie-free darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[26]
The fiction book
Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what tin can be interpreted as photography.[25]

Effectually the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood fabricated the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by ways of a calorie-free-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silvery nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that “the images formed by means of a camera obscura take been found as well faint to produce, in whatsoever moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver.” The shadow images somewhen darkened all over.[27]



Earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate made by Nicéphore Niépce.[28]
The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means. This was a step towards the offset permanent photograph taken with a photographic camera.

View of the Boulevard du Temple, a daguerreotype made by Louis Daguerre in 1838, is generally accustomed as the earliest photograph to include people. Information technology is a view of a busy street, but because the exposure lasted for several minutes the moving traffic left no trace. Only the two men near the lesser left corner, one of them apparently having his boots polished past the other, remained in one place long enough to be visible.

The commencement permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a afterwards effort to brand prints from it.[28]
Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the
View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.eastward., of the paradigm of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens).[29]

Because Niépce’s photographic camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least 8 hours and probably several days), he sought to profoundly better his bitumen procedure or replace information technology with one that was more applied. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out mail service-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more low-cal-sensitive resin, merely hours of exposure in the photographic camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for full secrecy.

Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre and then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abased many years earlier because of his disability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre’south efforts culminated in what would afterward be named the daguerreotype process. The essential elements—a silverish-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, adult by mercury vapor, and “stock-still” with hot saturated salt water—were in identify in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: dissimilar the other pedestrian and equus caballus-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one human having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to exist visible. The existence of Daguerre’s process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a alimony in exchange for the right to present his invention to the globe as the souvenir of France, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on nineteen Baronial 1839. In that aforementioned yr, American lensman Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the primeval surviving photographic self-portrait.

A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed past William Trick Talbot in 1835. Shown here in positive form, this may be the oldest extant photographic negative made in a photographic camera.

In Brazil, Hercules Florence had apparently started working out a silvery-common salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it

Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Fox Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silverish images on newspaper as early on as 1834 but had kept his work secret. Subsequently reading about Daguerre’s invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto hugger-mugger method and set up about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot’due south paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the photographic camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemic development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot’s process, unlike Daguerre’s, created a translucent negative which could be used to impress multiple positive copies; this is the footing of most modernistic chemical photography up to the present day, as daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[30]
Talbot’s famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, i of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[31]

In France, Hippolyte Bayard invented his ain process for producing directly positive paper prints and claimed to have invented photography earlier than Daguerre or Talbot.[33]

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar every bit the “blueprint”. He was the first to use the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to “fix” argent-halide-based photographs and brand them completely low-cal-fast. He made the first glass negative in tardily 1839.

Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana–per The New York Times, “one of the primeval and near dramatic examples of how the newborn medium of photography could change the course of history.”[34]

Advertizing for Campbell’due south Photograph Gallery from The Macon Metropolis Directory, circa 1877.

In the March 1851 issue of
The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are iii subsets to the collodion procedure; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and press were fabricated during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a procedure for making natural-color photographs based on the optical miracle of the interference of calorie-free waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908.

Glass plates were the medium for most original photographic camera photography from the late 1850s until the general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their drinking glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were not available in the large formats preferred past most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such as astrophotography, connected into the 1990s, and in the niche field of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation holography, it has persisted into the 21st century.



Undeveloped Arista black-and-white movie, ISO 125/22°

Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their piece of work enabled the first quantitative mensurate of moving picture speed to be devised.

The first flexible photographic roll picture was marketed past George Eastman, founder of Kodak in 1885, but this original “motion-picture show” was really a coating on a paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose known as nitrate moving picture.

Although cellulose acetate or “safety film” had been introduced past Kodak in 1908,[35]
at starting time information technology found only a few special applications as an culling to the hazardous nitrate picture, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was not completed for Ten-ray films until 1933, and although condom film was ever used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate motion picture remained standard for theatrical 35 mm movement pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained the ascendant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats.[36]
Although modern photography is dominated past digital users, picture continues to be used past enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive “wait” of motion-picture show based photographs compared to digital images is probable due to a combination of factors, including: (1) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (Due south-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with film vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors)[37]
(2) resolution and (three) continuity of tone.[38]



Originally, all photography was monochrome, or
black-and-white. Even after color motion picture was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost, chemical stability, and its “classic” photographic look. The tones and contrast between calorie-free and night areas define black-and-white photography.[39]
Monochromatic pictures are not necessarily equanimous of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of grey but can involve shades of one item hue depending on the process. The cyanotype process, for instance, produces an paradigm composed of blueish tones. The albumen print process, publicly revealed in 1847, produces chocolate-brown tones.

Many photographers keep to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silvery-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salve certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original grade; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are establish to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for creative reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and well-nigh all epitome editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from ane shot in color.



Color photography was explored beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for photographic camera images) and could not “fix” the photograph to forbid the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 using the 3-colour-separation principle first published past Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855.[xl]
The foundation of virtually all practical color processes, Maxwell’s idea was to accept three separate blackness-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters.[40]
This provides the photographer with the three bones channels required to recreate a color image. Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, equally this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Acland demonstrates, merely in its earliest years, the demand for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated press processes made it extremely rare.

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made all-encompassing use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited colour “fringes” or, if apace moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, but slightly sensitive to green, and near insensitive to carmine. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 all of a sudden made it possible to add sensitivity to light-green, yellowish and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing information technology ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the 3 color components to be recorded equally adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were i of several varieties of additive colour screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

Kodachrome, the first modern “integral tripack” (or “monopack”) color moving-picture show, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the 3 color components in a multi-layer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to tape the ruby-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded just the greenish part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the effect would but be three superimposed blackness-and-white images, just complementary cyan, magenta, and xanthous dye images were created in those layers by adding colour couplers during a complex processing procedure.

Agfa’south similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the colour couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently, available colour films however employ a multi-layer emulsion and the aforementioned principles, almost closely resembling Agfa’s product.

Instant color film, used in a special photographic camera which yielded a unique finished color print simply a minute or two afterward the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may grade images as positive transparencies, which tin can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated newspaper. The latter is now the most common form of flick (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. Later a transition period centered around 1995–2005, color movie was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive “look”.



Kodak DCS 100, based on a Nikon F3 torso with Digital Storage Unit

In 1981, Sony unveiled the beginning consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to deejay, the images were displayed on idiot box, and the camera was not fully digital.

The kickoff digital camera to both record and save images in a digital format was the Fujix DS-1P created past Fujfilm in 1988.[42]

In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high price precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was built-in.

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a prepare of electronic information rather than as chemical changes on motion picture.[43]
An important divergence between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves motion-picture show and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of epitome post-processing that is comparatively difficult in movie-based photography and permits unlike chatty potentials and applications.

Photography on a smartphone

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken effectually the globe are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.



Angles such as vertical, horizontal, or as pictured here diagonal are considered of import photographic techniques

A big variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; dualphotography; total-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.



The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic epitome sensor is the capture medium. The corresponding recording medium can exist the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory.[44]

Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the light recording material to the required amount of lite to course a “latent image” (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras utilize an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such equally charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, simply can be reproduced on a paper.

The camera (or ‘camera obscura’) is a night room or bedchamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the epitome. It was discovered and used in the 16th century past painters. The discipline existence photographed, however, must exist illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to exist photographed is in some other room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

As soon as photographic materials became “fast” (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, pocket-sized “detective” cameras were made, some really disguised equally a book or pocketbook or pocket picket (the
camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pivot that was really the lens.

The movie camera is a type of camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a yet photographic camera, which captures a single snapshot at a fourth dimension, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a “frame”. This is achieved through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the “frame rate” (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person’s eyes and brain merge the divide pictures to create the illusion of motion.[45]



Photographs, both monochrome and color, tin be captured and displayed through two side-past-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in movement.[46]
While known colloquially as “3-D” photography, the more authentic term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized past using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell telephone cameras).



An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (eastward.thousand. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or ii networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography). The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the lensman, or both sides of a geographical identify at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single paradigm.[47]

Total-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared


Ultraviolet and infrared films have been bachelor for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography take opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

Modified digital cameras tin detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the virtually infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from nigh 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise exist detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[48]

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a broad spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to notice the wider spectrum low-cal at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blueish (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements laissez passer varying amounts of ultraviolet (blueish window) and infrared (primarily cherry-red and somewhat lesser the green and bluish micro-filters).

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics and law enforcement.



Layering is a photographic composition technique that manipulates the foreground, discipline or middle-ground, and background layers in a way that they all work together to tell a story through the image.[49]
Layers may exist incorporated by altering the focal length, distorting the perspective by positioning the photographic camera in a certain spot.[50]
People, motion, light and a variety of objects can be used in layering.[51]

Light field


Digital methods of epitome capture and display processing accept enabled the new technology of “calorie-free field photography” (also known every bit constructed aperture photography). This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected
the photograph has been captured.[52]
Every bit explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the “light field” is understood as five-dimensional, with each point in iii-D infinite having attributes of two more angles that ascertain the management of each ray passing through that point.

These additional vector attributes can exist captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel indicate inside the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the concluding epitome is actually a option from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm.



Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with calorie-free are bachelor. For case, a photocopy or xerography automobile forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects bandage on the photographic paper, without the utilize of a photographic camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.





Amateur photographers accept photos for personal use, as a hobby or out of casual interest, rather than as a business organisation or job. The quality apprentice work tin can exist comparable to that of many professionals. Amateurs can make full a gap in subjects or topics that might not otherwise be photographed if they are non commercially useful or salable. Apprentice photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the mitt-held camera.[53]
20-first century social media and most-ubiquitous photographic camera phones take made photographic and video recording pervasive in everyday life. In the mid-2010s smartphone cameras added numerous automated assistance features similar color management, autofocus confront detection and prototype stabilization that significantly decreased skill and effort needed to take high quality images.[54]



Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photo itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Ad photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such equally packshots, are generally washed with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design squad.
  • Architectural photography focuses on capturing photographs of buildings and architectural structures that are aesthetically pleasing and accurate in terms of representations of their subjects.
  • Consequence photography focuses on photographing guests and occurrences at mostly social events.
  • Manner and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in
    Harper’s Boutique, emphasizes wearing apparel and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is pop in advertising and men’due south magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude.
  • 360 product photography displays a series of photos to requite the impression of a rotating object. This technique is commonly used by ecommerce websites to help shoppers visualise products.
  • Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well equally the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their direction to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the creative person or ring in improver to the venue.
  • Criminal offense scene photography consists of photographing scenes of law-breaking such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared photographic camera may exist used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography unremarkably depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may exist either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertizing purposes.
  • Real Estate photography focuses on the production of photographs showcasing a property that is for auction, such photographs requires the use of broad-lens and extensive noesis in Loftier-dynamic-range imaging photography.

Case of a studio-fabricated nutrient photograph.

  • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertisement employ. Food photography is like to nonetheless life photography but requires some special skills.
  • Photojournalism tin be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accustomed as a documentation of a news story.
  • Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures aboveboard images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold straight to the terminate user of the images.
  • Mural photography depicts locations.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of wild animals.



During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography every bit a fine art. At first, art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate ‘straight photography’, the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an false of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an paradigm. If photography is authentically fine art, then photography in the context of art would demand redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images “written with light”; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their piece of work met the definitions and purposes of art.

Clive Bell in his archetype essay
states that only “significant form” tin can distinguish fine art from what is not art.

In that location must be some 1 quality without which a work of art cannot be; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? But one answer seems possible – pregnant class. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular manner, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our artful emotions.[55]

On 7 February 2007, Sotheby’due south London sold the 2001 photo
99 Cent Two Diptychon
for an unprecedented $three,346,456 to an anonymous applicant, making it the most expensive at the time.[56]

Conceptual photography turns a concept or thought into a photograph. Fifty-fifty though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

In parallel to this development, the then largely split up interface between painting and photography was closed in the early 1970s with the work of the photograph artists Pierre Cordier (Chimigramm), Chemigram and Josef H. Neumann, Chemogram. In 1974 the chemograms by Josef H. Neumann ended the separation of the painterly background and the photographic layer by showing the picture elements in a symbiosis that had never existed before, every bit an unmistakable unique specimen, in a simultaneous painterly and at the same fourth dimension real photographic perspective, using lenses, inside a photographic layer, united in colors and shapes. This Neumann chemogram from the seventies of the 20th century thus differs from the first of the previously created cameraless chemigrams of a Pierre Cordier and the photogram Man Ray or László Moholy-Nagy of the previous decades. These works of art were almost simultaneous with the invention of photography past various important artists who characterized Hippolyte Bayard, Thomas Wedgwood, William Henry Flim-flam Talbot in their early on stages, and later on Man Ray and László Moholy-Nagy in the twenties and past the painter in the thirties Edmund Kesting and Christian Schad past draping objects directly onto appropriately sensitized photo paper and using a calorie-free source without a camera.



National Guardsman in Washington D.C. (2021)

Photojournalism is a item form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is at present usually understood to refer only to withal images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in circulate journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (eastward.chiliad., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) past complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the piece of work exist both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening correct outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but too entertaining, including sports photography.

Science and forensics


The camera has a long and distinguished history every bit a ways of recording scientific phenomena from the starting time utilize by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), pocket-size creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording criminal offence scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton span collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for apply in legal cases are collectively known equally forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from 3 vantage bespeak. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-upward.[58]

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Managing director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful photographic camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced 12- or 24- hour photographic traces of the minute-past-minute variations of atmospheric pressure level, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories effectually the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.[59]
Charles Brooke a little later developed like instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.[61]

Scientific discipline uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation.[62]
Photography has become universal in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at law-breaking scenes or blow scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, too every bit spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time.[63]

The showtime photographed atom was discovered in 2012 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an “Ion” of the chemical element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film.[64]

Wildlife Photography


Wildlife photography involves capturing images of various forms of wild animals. Unlike other forms of photography such as product or food photography, successful wildlife photography requires a photographer to choose the right place and correct time when specific wildlife are present and active. It ofttimes requires keen patience and considerable skill and command of the right photographic equipment.[65]

Social and cultural implications


At that place are many ongoing questions nearly unlike aspects of photography. In her
On Photography
(1977), Susan Sontag dismisses the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[66]
Sontag argues, “To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. Information technology means putting one’south cocky into a sure relation to the globe that feels like noesis, and therefore like power.”[67]
Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reverberate a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective class of representation.

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on society. In Alfred Hitchcock’southward
Rear Window
(1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. ‘Although the photographic camera is an observation station, the human action of photographing is more than passive observing’.[67]

The camera doesn’t rape or even possess, though it may assume, intrude, trespass, misconstrue, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual button and shove, tin can be conducted from a distance, and with some disengagement.[67]

Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns considering of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in mail-processing. Many photojournalists have alleged they will non ingather their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make “photomontages”, passing them as “real” photographs. Today’southward engineering has made epitome editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. Nonetheless, recent changes of in-photographic camera processing permit digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the construction of order.[68]
Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that “to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed”. Desensitization word goes hand in manus with debates most censored images. Sontag writes of her business that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the power to construct reality.[67]

One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a “tourist gaze”[69]
in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has likewise been argued that in that location exists a “reverse gaze”[70]
through which indigenous photographees tin can position the tourist lensman equally a shallow consumer of images.



Photography is both restricted and protected by the police force in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the United States, photography is protected every bit a First Amendment correct and anyone is complimentary to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long equally it is in plain view.[71]
In the U.k. a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the ability of the law to prevent people, fifty-fifty press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[72]
In South Africa, any person may photo any other person, without their permission, in public spaces and the only specific brake placed on what may not be photographed past government is related to anything classed as national security. Each country has unlike laws.

See as well


  • Outline of photography
  • Science of photography
  • List of photographers
  • List of photography awards
  • Astrophotography
  • Image editing
  • Imaging
  • Photolab and minilab
  • Visual arts



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Further reading




  • Barrett, T 2012, Criticizing Photographs: an introduction to understanding images, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Bate, D. (2009), Photography: The Key Concepts, Bloomsbury, New York.
  • Berger, J. (Dyer, M. ed.), (2013), Understanding a Photo, Penguin Classics, London.
  • Vivid, S 2011, Fine art Photography Now, Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Cotton wool, C. (2015), The Photo as Contemporary Art, third edn, Thames & Hudson, New York.
  • Heiferman, K. (2013), Photography Changes Everything, Aperture Foundation, The states.
  • Shore, S. (2015), The Nature of Photographs, second ed. Phaidon, New York.
  • Wells, L. (2004),
    Photography. A Critical Introduction
    [Paperback], 3rd ed. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-30704-X



  • A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998
  • Franz-Xaver Schlegel,
    Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN iii-00-004407-8.

Reference works


  • Tom Ang (2002).
    Lexicon of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Mod Photographer. Watson-Guptill. ISBN978-0-8174-3789-three.

  • Hans-Michael Koetzle:
    Das Lexikon der Fotografen: 1900 bis heute, Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 p., ISBN 3-426-66479-eight
  • John Hannavy (ed.):
    Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, 1736 p., New York: Routledge 2005 ISBN 978-0-415-97235-2
  • Lynne Warren (Hrsg.):
    Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 1719 p., New York: Routledge, 2006
  • The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. past Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005
  • “The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography”, Richard Zakia, Leslie Stroebel, Focal Press 1993, ISBN 0-240-51417-3
  • Stroebel, Leslie (2000).
    Basic Photographic Materials and Processes. et al. Boston: Focal Press. ISBN978-0-240-80405-7.

Other books


  • Photography and The Art of Seeing
    past Freeman Patterson, Key Porter Books 1989, ISBN ane-55013-099-iv.
  • The Fine art of Photography:
    An Arroyo to Personal Expression past Bruce Barnbaum, Rocky Nook 2010, ISBN 1-933952-68-7.
  • Image Clarity: High Resolution Photography
    past John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-eight.

External links


  • Globe History of Photography From The History of Fine art.
  • Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Procedure From the State Library & Archives of Florida.