A nonetheless from Willis O’Brien’s 1916 film,
The Missing Link.
Stop-motion (too referred to as stop-action) photography was one of the start “special effects” techniques always invented. Information technology is a form of blitheness and allows otherwise lifeless objects to move and change. Much of the early utilise of stop-motion in the cinema was to make models of dinosaurs plainly gallop by themselves. Terminate-motion continues to exist used today in commercials (like the singing
California Raisins) and children’s fantasies like
Rudolf the Ruddy Nosed Reindeer.
Movies and tv set work by displaying to the viewer a series of pictures. Each picture is identical except for the action that is changing in the scene. If the images are flashed up fast plenty (around ten a 2d) the brain will run into them as a single picture with moving elements. This result is known as
persistence of vision. Motility pictures are usually projected at 24 frames a second and video at 30 frames a 2d (although this comes in the form of ii interlaced half frames every 60th of a second).
Movement film cameras record by exposing frames (24 a second) one later another then that motion, like a person walking down a street, is captured. If the camera is pointed at an inanimate object, similar a vase on a tabular array, and the frames are exposed one at a time and so that in between shots the vase can exist moved a fraction of an inch, then film when projected dorsum at normal speed, volition show the vase evidently moving by itself. The aforementioned can be done with elaborate jointed models on miniature sets to requite the impression that the models are live and walking effectually past themselves. In addition to models, dirt and drawings are often used with this technique. When drawings are used it is generally referred to as
1 of the earliest shorts produced using terminate-movement was
The Missing Link.
Willis O’Brien, a pioneer of stop-motion, completed this comedy in 1916. O’Brien went on to later do the terminate-motion for
The Lost Globe
in 1925. His most well-known work was
Ray Harryhausen at work.
O’Brien’s work inspired a new generation of cease-motion artists including
Ray Harryhausen (left). Harryhausen worked on dozens of films animating everything from dinosaurs and dragons to an army of sword-fighting human skeletons for the film
Jason and the Argonauts. Harryhausen was the premier stop-motion animator of his day, and his name on the film was every scrap as important a draw equally the lead actors.
Stop-motion photography requires long hours of hard work to produce even a few seconds of moving picture. A single error tin cause many days worth of material to be lost. For this reason, the camera, set and models are carefully clamped down to eliminate unexpected movement between shooting each frame. In
much of the miniature leafage was actually made out of metal to keep it rock steady.
The Kong crew ran into problem while filming i sequence when a live primrose plant, used in a jungle scene, went into bloom 1 day during filming. Nobody noticed this until the film was developed and viewed. In the background appeared a perfect fourth dimension-lapse sequence of a white flower opening. The entire scene, a twenty-four hours’southward piece of work, had to be re-shot.
The Kong crew also ran into trouble with the rabbit fur that covered the eighteen-inch-high Kong model used in the production. Every bit the animators adjusted the Kong model in between shooting frames, their hands disturbed the hair. The producers of the film were appalled when these showed up as obvious ripples on the head and shoulders of Kong during an important screening for studio executives. Fortunately ane of the VIPs cried out in excitement, “Hey, Kong is mad! Look at him bristle!”
Harryhausen’s six-armed octopus from
It Came From Below the Body of water.
Since producing stop-motion sequences were and so labor intensive and expensive, animators oft had to find unique ways to cut costs during production. Ray Harryhausen, while filming
It Came From Beneath the Bounding main (right), the saga of a behemothic irradiated octopus that ate San Fransico, was forced to reduce the number of arms on the octopus model from eight to six to assistance keep the picture on budget.
Harryhausen likewise came upwardly with a divide-screen process that allowed the stop movement models to be placed in scenes with real buildings and people. This lowered the costs of producion and fabricated the activity seem more realistic. Harryhausen called this process
Despite the careful piece of work of artists, like Harryhausen, finish-motion photography had some inherent limitations. One of the most important is its disability to accurately represent quick motility. When a homo runs past a camera during traditional filming, his movement is quick enough to cause a mistiness on each frame. An animated dinosaur running by the camera volition not blur because each frame is a photograph of a still model. Our optics tin can perceive the difference and stop-motion dinosaurs which are running will ever seem to move in a staccato fashion.
tried to solve this in
Return of the Jedi, through a method he called
get-movement. It involved filming a boob at loftier speed. Because the activeness was not stopped a proper mistiness was recorded, simply since the monster boob was being photographed in real-time, it was limited in the actions it could perform.
Harryhausen’south cease-motion skeletons claiming real actors in
Jason and the Argonauts
Computer animation has now replaced stop-motion in nearly every awarding where the film maker is trying to create a realistic consequence. In computer blitheness the model is synthetic within the memory of the computer. This allows the model to exist more versatile and detailed. The estimator can also blur frames to simulate motion and it is easy to go back and make changes in the centre of a scene, something that was impossible with the older finish-motility method. Computer animation is and so constructive that in the moving picture
it is impossible to tell the full-sized dinosaur puppets from the computer-generated animals.
Stop-motion isn’t completely gone, however. Sometimes film-makers adopt it because of the special style information technology gives the movie. Two recent successful productions,
The Nightmare Before Christmas, and
James and the Behemothic Peach, were filmed almost entirely using this technique.
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Copyright Lee Krystek 1996. All Rights Reserved.
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