What Does The Term Photography Come From

By | 04/10/2022

Invention and evolution of the photographic camera and the creation of permanent images

The
history of photography
began in remote antiquity with the discovery of two disquisitional principles: camera obscura epitome project and the observation that some substances are visibly contradistinct by exposure to calorie-free. There are no artifacts or descriptions that signal any attempt to capture images with light sensitive materials prior to the 18th century.

Effectually 1717, Johann Heinrich Schulze captured cut-out letters on a bottle of a light-sensitive slurry, but he apparently never thought of making the results durable. Around 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the outset reliably documented, although unsuccessful try at capturing photographic camera images in permanent grade. His experiments did produce detailed photograms, simply Wedgwood and his associate Humphry Davy found no way to prepare these images.

In the mid-1820s, Nicéphore Niépce first managed to fix an epitome that was captured with a camera, simply at to the lowest degree viii hours or even several days of exposure in the camera were required and the earliest results were very crude. Niépce’southward acquaintance Louis Daguerre went on to develop the daguerreotype process, the first publicly announced and commercially viable photographic procedure. The daguerreotype required only minutes of exposure in the photographic camera, and produced clear, finely detailed results. The details were introduced to the world in 1839, a engagement by and large accepted as the birth year of applied photography.[ii]
[3]
The metallic-based daguerreotype process presently had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and common salt print processes invented past William Henry Flim-flam Talbot and demonstrated in 1839 presently after news about the daguerreotype reached Talbot. Subsequent innovations made photography easier and more than versatile. New materials reduced the required camera exposure fourth dimension from minutes to seconds, and eventually to a small fraction of a second; new photographic media were more economical, sensitive or user-friendly. Since the 1850s, the collodion process with its glass-based photographic plates combined the high quality known from the Daguerreotype with the multiple print options known from the calotype and was commonly used for decades. Roll films popularized casual use past amateurs. In the mid-20th century, developments fabricated it possible for amateurs to accept pictures in natural color too as in black-and-white.

The commercial introduction of computer-based electronic digital cameras in the 1990s soon revolutionized photography. During the first decade of the 21st century, traditional film-based photochemical methods were increasingly marginalized every bit the practical advantages of the new technology became widely appreciated and the epitome quality of moderately priced digital cameras was continually improved. Specially since cameras became a standard feature on smartphones, taking pictures (and instantly publishing them online) has go a ubiquitous everyday do around the world.

Etymology

[edit]

The coining of the word “photography” is usually attributed to Sir John Herschel in 1839. Information technology is based on the Greek
φῶς
(phōs; genitive
phōtos), meaning “lite”, and
γραφή
(graphê), meaning “drawing, writing”, together pregnant “drawing with lite”.[4]

Early on history of the photographic camera

[edit]

Principle of a box camera obscura with mirror

A natural phenomenon, known as camera obscura or pinhole epitome, can project a (reversed) prototype through a pocket-size opening onto an opposite surface. This principle may accept been known and used in prehistoric times. The earliest known written record of the camera obscura is to be found in Chinese writings by Mozi, dated to the 4th century BCE.[v]
Until the 16th century the camera obscura was mainly used to study optics and astronomy, particularly to safely watch solar eclipses without dissentious the optics. In the after half of the 16th century some technical improvements were developed: a arched lens in the opening (first described by Gerolamo Cardano in 1550) and a diaphragm restricting the aperture (Daniel Barbaro in 1568) gave a brighter and sharper image. In 1558 Giambattista della Porta advised using the camera obscura as a drawing aid in his popular and influential books. Della Porta’s advice was widely adopted by artists and since the 17th century portable versions of the photographic camera obscura were unremarkably used — first as a tent, subsequently as boxes. The box blazon camera obscura was the basis for the earliest photographic cameras when photography was developed in the early 19th century.[6]

Earlier 1700: Light sensitive materials

[edit]

The notion that light can affect various substances — for example, the lord’s day tanning of peel or fading of textile — must take been around since very early on times. Ideas of fixing the images seen in mirrors or other ways of creating images automatically may as well accept been in people’due south minds long earlier anything similar photography was developed.[7]
However, there seem to exist no historical records of any ideas even remotely resembling photography before 1700, despite early on knowledge of light-sensitive materials and the camera obscura.[8]

In 1614 Angelo Sala noted that[nine]
sunlight will turn powdered silver nitrate black, and that paper wrapped effectually silver nitrate for a year will turn black.[x]

Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694.[11]

1700 to 1802: earliest concepts and fleeting photogram results

[edit]


Schulze’southward Scotophors: earliest fleeting alphabetic character photograms (circa 1717)

[edit]

Around 1717,[12]
German polymath Johann Heinrich Schulze accidentally discovered that a slurry of chalk and nitric acrid into which some silver particles had been dissolved was darkened by sunlight. After experiments with threads that had created lines on the bottled substance after he placed information technology in direct sunlight for a while, he practical stencils of words to the bottle. The stencils produced copies of the text in dark red, virtually violet characters on the surface of the otherwise whitish contents. The impressions persisted until they were erased by shaking the bottle or until overall exposure to low-cal obliterated them. Schulze named the substance “Scotophors” when he published his findings in 1719. He thought the discovery could be applied to find whether metals or minerals independent whatever argent and hoped that further experimentation past others would atomic number 82 to some other useful results.[thirteen]
[14]
Schulze’s process resembled later photogram techniques and is sometimes regarded as the very first form of photography.[15]


De la Roche’s fictional image capturing process (1760)

[edit]

The early scientific discipline fiction novel
Giphantie
[16]
(1760) by the Frenchman Tiphaigne de la Roche described something quite like to (color) photography, a process that fixes fleeting images formed past rays of light: “They coat a piece of canvass with this material, and place it in front of the object to capture. The first effect of this cloth is similar to that of a mirror, but by means of its viscous nature the prepared canvas, as is not the instance with the mirror, retains a facsimile of the prototype. The mirror represents images faithfully, but retains none; our sail reflects them no less faithfully, only retains them all. This impression of the image is instantaneous. The canvas is then removed and deposited in a dark place. An hour subsequently the impression is dry, and you have a movie the more precious in that no art tin can imitate its truthfulness.”[17]
De la Roche thus imagined a process that made use of a special substance in combination with the qualities of a mirror, rather than the camera obscura. The hour of drying in a dark place suggests that he possibly thought about the lite sensitivity of the material, but he attributed the effect to its viscous nature.


Scheele’s forgotten chemical fixer (1777)

[edit]

In 1777, the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was studying the more than intrinsically low-cal-sensitive argent chloride and determined that light darkened information technology past disintegrating it into microscopic dark particles of metal silver. Of greater potential usefulness, Scheele found that ammonia dissolved the silver chloride, simply not the dark particles. This discovery could have been used to stabilize or “fix” a photographic camera paradigm captured with silver chloride, but was not picked upward by the earliest photography experimenters.[18]

Scheele likewise noted that blood-red calorie-free did non have much result on silver chloride, a phenomenon that would later exist applied in photographic darkrooms as a method of seeing blackness-and-white prints without harming their development.[19]

Although Thomas Wedgwood felt inspired by Scheele’s writings in general, he must have missed or forgotten these experiments; he found no method to ready the photogram and shadow images he managed to capture around 1800 (come across beneath).[nineteen]


Thomas Wedgwood and Humphry Davy: Fleeting detailed photograms (1790?–1802)

[edit]

English photographer and inventor Thomas Wedgwood is believed to take been the first person to have idea of creating permanent pictures by capturing camera images on cloth coated with a light-sensitive chemical. He originally wanted to capture the images of a camera obscura, but found they were also faint to have an effect upon the silver nitrate solution that was recommended to him equally a light-sensitive substance. Wedgwood did manage to copy painted glass plates and captured shadows on white leather, as well as on paper moistened with a silvery nitrate solution. Attempts to preserve the results with their “distinct tints of brown or black, sensibly differing in intensity” failed. It is unclear when Wedgwood’s experiments took place. He may have started before 1790; James Watt wrote a alphabetic character to Thomas Wedgwood’southward begetter Josiah Wedgwood to thank him “for your instructions every bit to the Silvery Pictures, about which, when at home, I will make some experiments”. This letter of the alphabet (at present lost) is believed to have been written in 1790, 1791 or 1799. In 1802, an business relationship by Humphry Davy detailing Wedgwood’southward experiments was published in an early on journal of the Royal Institution with the title
An Account of a Method of Copying Paintings upon Glass, and of Making Profiles, by the Agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silverish. Davy added that the method could be used for objects that are partly opaque and partly transparent to create accurate representations of, for case, “the woody fibres of leaves and the wings of insects”. He besides found that solar microscope images of pocket-size objects were easily captured on prepared paper. Davy, apparently unaware or forgetful of Scheele’s discovery, ended that substances should be found to eliminate (or deactivate) the unexposed particles in silver nitrate or silver chloride “to return the process every bit useful as it is elegant”.[nineteen]
Wedgwood may have prematurely abandoned his experiments because of his frail and failing wellness. He died at age 34 in 1805.

Davy seems not to accept continued the experiments. Although the journal of the nascent Regal Institution probably reached its very small group of members, the article must have been read eventually by many more than people. It was reviewed past David Brewster in the
Edinburgh Mag
in December 1802, appeared in chemical science textbooks as early as 1803, was translated into French and was published in German in 1811. Readers of the article may have been discouraged to observe a fixer, because the highly acclaimed scientist Davy had already tried and failed. Apparently the article was not noted by Niépce or Daguerre, and by Talbot but later on he had developed his ain processes.[xix]
[20]


Jacques Charles: Fleeting silhouette photograms (circa 1801?)

[edit]

French balloonist, professor and inventor Jacques Charles is believed to have captured fleeting negative photograms of silhouettes on light-sensitive paper at the start of the 19th century, prior to Wedgwood. Charles died in 1823 without having documented the process, but purportedly demonstrated it in his lectures at the Louvre. It was not publicized until François Arago mentioned it at his introduction of the details of the daguerreotype to the world in 1839. He later wrote that the first idea of fixing the images of the camera obscura or the solar microscope with chemical substances belonged to Charles. Later historians probably only built on Arago’southward data, and, much later, the unsupported year 1780 was attached to it.[21]
As Arago indicated the first years of the 19th century and a engagement prior to the 1802 publication of Wedgwood’south process, this would mean that Charles’ demonstrations took place in 1800 or 1801, bold that Arago was this accurate nearly xl years afterwards.


1816 to 1833: Niépce’s earliest fixed images

[edit]

The earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, fabricated in 1825. It was printed from a metal plate fabricated by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce with his “heliographic process”.[22]
The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it past photographic means. This was a step towards the first permanent photo from nature taken with a camera obscura.

View of the Boulevard du Temple, a daguerreotype fabricated by Louis Daguerre in 1838, is generally accepted as the earliest photograph to include people. It is a view of a busy street, merely because the exposure lasted for several minutes the moving traffic left no trace. Only the two men most the bottom left corner, ane of them manifestly having his boots polished by the other, remained in one place long enough to exist visible.

In 1816, Nicéphore Niépce, using paper coated with silver chloride, succeeded in photographing the images formed in a modest camera, but the photographs were negatives, darkest where the camera image was lightest and vice versa, and they were not permanent in the sense of existence reasonably light-fast; similar earlier experimenters, Niépce could find no style to preclude the coating from concealment all over when it was exposed to light for viewing. Disenchanted with silvery salts, he turned his attention to light-sensitive organic substances.[23]

Robert Cornelius, self-portrait, October or Nov 1839, an approximately quarter plate size daguerreotype. On the dorsum is written, “The first low-cal picture e’er taken”.

One of the oldest photographic portraits known, 1839 or 1840,[24]
made by John William Draper of his sister, Dorothy Catherine Draper

The oldest surviving photograph of the image formed in a photographic camera was created past Niépce in 1826 or 1827.[2]
It was made on a polished sheet of pewter and the light-sensitive substance was a thin blanket of bitumen, a naturally occurring petroleum tar, which was dissolved in lavender oil, applied to the surface of the pewter and allowed to dry out earlier use.[25]
Subsequently a very long exposure in the photographic camera (traditionally said to exist eight hours, only now believed to be several days),[26]
the bitumen was sufficiently hardened in proportion to its exposure to low-cal that the unhardened function could be removed with a solvent, leaving a positive epitome with the calorie-free areas represented by hardened bitumen and the dark areas by bare pewter.[25]
To see the image plainly, the plate had to exist lit and viewed in such a way that the bare metallic appeared dark and the bitumen relatively light.[23]

In partnership, Niépce in Chalon-sur-Saône and Louis Daguerre in Paris refined the bitumen process,[27]
substituting a more than sensitive resin and a very different post-exposure treatment that yielded higher-quality and more easily viewed images. Exposure times in the camera, although essentially reduced, were nonetheless measured in hours.[23]

1832 to 1840: early monochrome processes

[edit]

Niépce died suddenly in 1833, leaving his notes to Daguerre. More interested in silver-based processes than Niépce had been, Daguerre experimented with photographing photographic camera images direct onto a mirror-like argent-surfaced plate that had been fumed with iodine vapor, which reacted with the silver to form a blanket of silver iodide. As with the bitumen procedure, the effect appeared every bit a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. Exposure times were still impractically long until Daguerre made the pivotal discovery that an invisibly slight or “latent” image produced on such a plate by a much shorter exposure could be “developed” to total visibility by mercury fumes. This brought the required exposure fourth dimension down to a few minutes under optimum weather condition. A strong hot solution of common table salt served to stabilize or fix the paradigm past removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French University of Sciences,[28]
and the news speedily spread.[29]
At first, all details of the procedure were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre’s studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.[30]
Arrangements were made for the French government to buy the rights in substitution for pensions for Niépce’southward son and Daguerre and present the invention to the world (with the exception of Smashing Great britain, where an agent for Daguerre patented it) as a gratuitous souvenir.[31]
Complete instructions were fabricated public on 19 August 1839.[32]
Known as the daguerreotype process, it was the most common commercial process until the late 1850s when information technology was superseded by the collodion process.

French-born Hércules Florence adult his ain photographic technique in
[33]
in 1832 or 1833 with some help of chemist Joaquim Corrêa de Mello (1816–1877). Looking for some other method to copy graphic designs he captured their images on newspaper treated with argent nitrate every bit contact prints or in a camera obscura device. He did not manage to properly fix his images and abandoned the project later hearing of the Daguerreotype process in 1839[34]
and didn’t properly publish whatever of his findings. He reportedly referred to the technique every bit “photographie” (in French) as early as 1833, also helped by a suggestion of De Mello.[35]
Some extant photographic contact prints are believed to have been made in circa 1833 and kept in the collection of IMS.

Henry Fox Talbot had already succeeded in creating stabilized photographic negatives on newspaper in 1835, only worked on perfecting his own process later reading early on reports of Daguerre’s invention. In early on 1839, he acquired a primal improvement, an effective fixer, from his friend John Herschel, a polymath scientist who had previously shown that hyposulfite of soda (normally called “hypo” and at present known formally as sodium thiosulfate) would dissolve silvery salts.[36]
News of this solvent also benefited Daguerre, who presently adopted it every bit a more efficient alternative to his original hot salt h2o method.[37]

Talbot’due south early on silver chloride “sensitive paper” experiments required camera exposures of an hour or more than. In 1841, Talbot invented the calotype process, which, like Daguerre’s process, used the principle of chemical development of a faint or invisible “latent” image to reduce the exposure time to a few minutes. Newspaper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by photographing information technology with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a big number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet some other distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the homo face up[
citation needed
]
. Talbot patented this process,[38]
which profoundly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very wide interpretation of his patent, earning himself the sick will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes subsequently introduced by other inventors, just he was somewhen defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot’south adult-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical picture cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had too adult a method of photography but delayed announcing information technology, and and then was not recognized as its inventor.

In 1839, John Herschel fabricated the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. Slovene Janez Puhar invented a procedure for making photographs on glass in 1841; information technology was recognized on June 17, 1852 in Paris past the Académie National Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale.[39]
In 1847, Nicephore Niépce’southward cousin, the chemist Niépce St. Victor, published his invention of a process for making glass plates with an albumen emulsion; the Langenheim brothers of Philadelphia and John Whipple and William Brood Jones of Boston likewise invented workable negative-on-drinking glass processes in the mid-1840s.[40]

1850 to 1900

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In 1851, English sculptor Frederick Scott Archer invented the collodion process.[41]
Lensman and children’due south writer Lewis Carroll used this process. (Carroll refers to the process every bit “Talbotype” in the story “A Lensman’south Day Out”.)[42]

Herbert Bowyer Berkeley experimented with his own version of collodion emulsions after Samman introduced the thought of adding dithionite to the pyrogallol developer.[
citation needed
]

Berkeley discovered that with his own addition of sulfite, to blot the sulfur dioxide given off by the chemic dithionite in the developer, dithionite was non required in the developing process. In 1881, he published his discovery. Berkeley’s formula contained pyrogallol, sulfite, and citric acrid. Ammonia was added merely before utilise to brand the formula alkaline. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulphur-Pyrogallol Developer.[43]

Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. The German language-born, New Orleans photographer Theodore Lilienthal successfully sought legal redress in an 1881 infringement case involving his “Lambert Process” in the Eastern District of Louisiana.

Popularization

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The daguerreotype proved popular in response to the demand for portraiture that emerged from the middle classes during the Industrial Revolution.[44]
[
citation needed
]

This need, which could not exist met in volume and in price by oil painting, added to the push for the development of photography.

Roger Fenton and Philip Henry Delamotte helped popularize the new style of recording events, the start by his Crimean War pictures, the second past his record of the disassembly and reconstruction of The Crystal Palace in London. Other mid-nineteenth-century photographers established the medium as a more precise means than engraving or lithography of making a record of landscapes and architecture: for example, Robert Macpherson’s broad range of photographs of Rome, the interior of the Vatican, and the surrounding countryside became a sophisticated tourist’s visual record of his own travels.

In 1839, François Arago reported the invention of photography to stunned listeners by displaying the first photo taken in Egypt; that of Ras El Tin Palace.[45]

In America, by 1851 a broadsheet by daguerreotypist Augustus Washington was advertising prices ranging from l cents to $10.[46]
Notwithstanding, daguerreotypes were fragile and difficult to copy. Photographers encouraged chemists to refine the process of making many copies cheaply, which somewhen led them back to Talbot’due south process.

Ultimately, the photographic process came virtually from a series of refinements and improvements in the first 20 years. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to supplant the photographic plate and then that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. In July 1888 Eastman’s Kodak camera went on the market with the slogan “You printing the button, nosotros do the rest”.[48]
At present anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the procedure to others, and photography became available for the mass-market place in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Credibility.

Stereoscopic photography

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Charles Wheatstone developed his mirror stereoscope around 1832, but did not really publicize his invention until June 1838. He recognized the possibility of a combination with photography soon after Daguerre and Talbot announced their inventions and got Henry Fox Talbot to produce some calotype pairs for the stereoscope. He received the starting time results in October 1840, merely was non fully satisfied as the angle betwixt the shots was very large. Between 1841 and 1842 Henry Collen made calotypes of statues, buildings and portraits, including a portrait of Charles Babbage shot in August 1841. Wheatstone also obtained daguerreotype stereograms from Mr. Bristles in 1841 and from Hippolyte Fizeau and Antoine Claudet in 1842. None of these take nevertheless been located.[49]

David Brewster adult a stereoscope with lenses and a binocular photographic camera in 1844. He presented ii stereoscopic cocky portraits made past John Adamson in March 1849.[50]
A stereoscopic portrait of Adamson in the University of St Andrews Library Photographic Archive, dated “circa 1845′, may be i of these sets.[49]
A stereoscopic daguerreotype portrait of Michael Faraday in Kingston College’s Wheatstone drove and on loan to Bradford National Media Museum, dated “circa 1848”, may be older.[51]

Color process

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A applied ways of color photography was sought from the very first. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel equally early as the year of 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were and then light-sensitive they would merely bear very cursory inspection in dim light.

The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through ruddy, greenish, and blueish color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for employ in a lecture past the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[52]
The photographic emulsions then in apply were insensitive to almost of the spectrum, so the outcome was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell’south method is now almost widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. It was made applied by Hermann Wilhelm Vogel’s 1873 discovery of a style to brand emulsions sensitive to the rest of the spectrum, gradually introduced into commercial use showtime in the mid-1880s.

Two French inventors, Louis Ducos du Hauron and Charles Cros, working unknown to each other during the 1860s, famously unveiled their nearly identical ideas on the same twenty-four hour period in 1869. Included were methods for viewing a set up of iii color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[53]

The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, a process inventors and brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière began working on in the 1890s and commercially introduced in 1907.[54]
Information technology was based on i of Louis Duclos du Haroun’due south ideas: instead of taking three separate photographs through color filters, accept 1 through a mosaic of tiny color filters overlaid on the emulsion and view the results through an identical mosaic. If the private filter elements were minor enough, the three primary colors of cherry-red, blue, and green would blend together in the middle and produce the same additive color synthesis every bit the filtered project of iii separate photographs.

Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer with roughly five 1000000 previously dyed potato grains per square inch added to the surface. And then through the use of a rolling press, five tons of pressure level were used to flatten the grains, enabling every ane of them to capture and absorb color and their microscopic size allowing the illusion that the colors are merged. The final pace was calculation a coat of the light-capturing substance silver bromide, later which a colour image could be imprinted and adult. In order to see it, reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could exist viewed straight or projected with an ordinary projector. 1 of the drawbacks of the technology was an exposure time of at to the lowest degree a 2nd in brilliant daylight, with the time required quickly increasing in poor light. An indoor portrait required several minutes with the subject area stationary. This was because the grains absorbed color fairly slowly, and a filter of a yellowish-orange colour was required to keep the photo from coming out excessively blue. Although necessary, the filter had the effect of reducing the amount of calorie-free that was absorbed. Some other drawback was that the paradigm could only exist enlarged so much before the many dots that fabricated up the epitome would go apparent.[54]
[55]

Competing screen plate products presently appeared, and film-based versions were eventually made. All were expensive, and until the 1930s none was “fast” enough for hand-held snapshot-taking, then they mostly served a niche market of affluent advanced amateurs.

A new era in color photography began with the introduction of Kodachrome motion picture, bachelor for 16 mm home movies in 1935 and 35 mm slides in 1936. It captured the crimson, green, and blue colour components in 3 layers of emulsion. A circuitous processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta, and yellowish dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Maxwell’s method of taking three separate filtered black-and-white photographs continued to serve special purposes into the 1950s and beyond, and Polachrome, an “instant” slide movie that used the Autochrome’s additive principle, was available until 2003, but the few color print and slide films nevertheless beingness fabricated in 2022 all use the multilayer emulsion approach pioneered by Kodachrome.

Development of digital photography

[edit]

Walden Kirsch every bit scanned into the SEAC computer in 1957

In 1957, a team led past Russell A. Kirsch at the National Constitute of Standards and Applied science developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital estimator memory. One of the starting time photographs scanned was a picture of Kirsch’s infant son Walden. The resolution was 176×176 pixels with only one bit per pixel, i.e., stark black and white with no intermediate gray tones, but by combining multiple scans of the photograph washed with different black-white threshold settings, grayscale data could as well be acquired.[56]

The charge-coupled device (CCD) is the image-capturing optoelectronic component in first-generation digital cameras. It was invented in 1969 by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith at AT&T Bell Labs as a memory device. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the evolution of semiconductor bubble memory. Merging these two initiatives, Boyle and Smith conceived of the pattern of what they termed “Charge ‘Chimera’ Devices”. The essence of the pattern was the ability to transfer charge forth the surface of a semiconductor. Information technology was Dr. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs withal, who discovered that the CCD could be used every bit an imaging sensor. The CCD has increasingly been replaced past the active pixel sensor (APS), normally used in jail cell phone cameras. These mobile phone cameras are used by billions of people worldwide, dramatically increasing photographic activity and textile and also fueling denizen journalism.

  • 1973 – Fairchild Semiconductor releases the first large image-capturing CCD chip: 100 rows and 100 columns.[57]
  • 1975 – Bryce Bayer of Kodak develops the Bayer filter mosaic pattern for CCD color image sensors
  • 1986 – Kodak scientists develop the world’south beginning megapixel sensor.

The web has been a popular medium for storing and sharing photos ever since the first photograph was published on the web past Tim Berners-Lee in 1992 (an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes). Since then sites and apps such equally Facebook, Flickr, Instagram, Picasa (discontinued in 2022), Imgur and Photobucket have been used past many millions of people to share their pictures.

See besides

[edit]

  • History of the camera
  • History of Photography
    (academic journal)
  • Albumen print
  • History of photographic lens blueprint
  • Timeline of photography engineering
  • Outline of photography
  • Photography by ethnic peoples of the Americas
  • Women photographers
  • Movie photographic camera
  • Instant moving-picture show

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    “The First Photograph”.
    world wide web.hrc.utexas.edu
    . Retrieved
    iv April
    2022
    .


  2. ^


    a




    b




    Hirsch, Robert (2 June 2022).
    Seizing the Light: A History of Photography. McGraw-Hill. ISBN9780697143617
    – via Google Books.



  3. ^

    The Michigan Technic 1882
    The Genesis of Photography with Hints on Developing

  4. ^


    “photography – Search Online Etymology Lexicon”.
    world wide web.etymonline.com.



  5. ^


    “Did Y’all Know? This is the First-ever Photograph of Human Captured on a Camera”.
    News18
    . Retrieved
    19 August
    2022
    .



  6. ^


    Jade (20 May 2022). “The History of the Camera”.
    History Things
    . Retrieved
    19 August
    2022
    .



  7. ^

    Gernsheim, Helmut (1986).
    A concise history of photography. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-25128-4

  8. ^


    Batchen (1999).
    Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography. ISBN9780262522595.



  9. ^


    “Septem planetarum terrestrium spagirica recensio. Qua perspicue declaratur ratio nominis Hermetici, analogia metallorum cum microcosmo, …” apud Wilh. Janssonium. 2 June 2022 – via Google Books.


  10. ^


    Eder, Josef Maria (1932).
    Geschichte der Photographie
    [History of Photography]. p. 32.



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    Sloane, Thomas O’Conor (1895).
    Facts Worth Knowing Selected Mainly from the Scientific American for Household, Workshop, and Farm Embracing Practical and Useful Information for Every Branch of Manufacture. S. S. Scranton and Visitor.



  12. ^

    The title page dated 1719 of a section (of a 1721 book) containing the original publication can exist seen here. In the text Schulze claims he did the experiment 2 years before

  13. ^



    Bibliotheca Novissima Oberservationum ac Recensionum
    (in Latin). 1721. pp. 234–240.



  14. ^

    Litchfield, Richard Buckley (1903).
    Tom Wedgwood, the First Lensman, etc., London, Duckworth and Co. Out of copyright and available complimentary at annal.org. In Appendix A (pp. 217-227), Litchfield evaluates assertions that Schulze’due south experiments should be called photography and includes a complete English translation (from the original Latin) of Schulze’southward 1719 account of them as reprinted in 1727.

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Further reading

[edit]

  • Hannavy, John. Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, v volumes
  • Clerc, L.P. Photography Theory and Practice, beingness an English edition of “La Technique Photographique”

External links

[edit]


  • “Photography”.
    Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 21 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 845–522.

  • The Silver Sheet: Daguerreotype Masterpieces from the J. Paul Getty Museum
    Bates Lowry, Isabel Barrett Lowry 1998
  • A History of Photography from its Beginnings Till the 1920s past Dr. Robert Leggat, now hosted by Dr Michael Prichard
  • The Kickoff Photograph at The University of Texas at Austin



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_photography

Posted by: Fusiontr.com

Originally posted 2022-02-12 18:33:21.