What Is High Dynamic Range Camera

By | 13/10/2022

Enhanced signal representation in images, videos, audio or radio

High dynamic range
(HDR) is a dynamic range higher than usual, synonyms are
wide dynamic range,
extended dynamic range,
expanded dynamic range.

The term is oft used in discussing the dynamic range of various signals such as images, videos, audio or radio. Information technology may apply to the means of recording, processing, and reproducing such signals including analog and digitized signals.[1]

The term is also the proper name of some of the technologies or techniques allowing to achieve high dynamic range images, videos, or audio.

Imaging

[edit]

In this context, the term
high dynamic range
means there is a lot of variation in low-cal levels inside a scene or an image. The
dynamic range
refers to the range of luminosity between the brightest surface area and the darkest area of that scene or epitome.




High dynamic range imaging


(HDRI) refers to the prepare of imaging technologies and techniques that let to increase the dynamic range of images or videos. It covers the acquisition, creation, storage, distribution and display of images and videos.[2]

Mod movies take often been filmed with cameras featuring a higher dynamic range, and legacy movies tin be converted even if manual intervention would exist needed for some frames (as when black-and-white films are converted to colour)[
citation needed
]
. Likewise, special effects, peculiarly those that mix existent and constructed footage, require both HDR shooting and rendering[
citation needed
]
. HDR video is likewise needed in applications that need high accuracy for capturing temporal aspects of changes in the scene. This is important in monitoring of some industrial processes such equally welding, in predictive driver assistance systems in automotive industry, in surveillance video systems, and other applications.

Capture

[edit]

In photography and videography, a technique, commonly named
high dynamic range
(HDR), allows to increment the dynamic range of captured photos and videos beyond the native capability of the camera. It consists of capturing multiple frames of the same scene but with unlike exposures and and so combining them into one, resulting into an image with a dynamic range college than those of individually captured frames.[three]
[iv]

Some of the sensors on modern phones and cameras may even combine the 2 images on-chip. This also allows a wider dynamic range being directly bachelor to the user for brandish or processing without in-pixel pinch.

Some cameras designed for use in security applications can capture HDR videos past automatically providing 2 or more images for each frame, with irresolute exposure. For example, a sensor for 30fps video will requite out 60fps with the odd frames at a short exposure fourth dimension and the fifty-fifty frames at a longer exposure time.[
citation needed
]
.

Mod CMOS image sensors can ofttimes capture a loftier dynamic range images from a single exposure.[5]
This reduces the need to use the multi-exposure HDR capture technique.

High dynamic range captured images are used in extreme dynamic range applications like welding or automotive work. In security cameras the term used instead of HDR is “wide dynamic range”.[
citation needed
]

Because of the nonlinearity of some sensors image artifacts tin exist common.[
citation needed
]

Rendering

[edit]

High-dynamic-range rendering (HDRR) is the real-time rendering and display of virtual environments using a dynamic range of 65,535:1 or higher (used in computer, gaming, and entertainment technology).[6]

Dynamic range compression or expansion

[edit]

The technologies used to store, transmit, brandish and print images have limited dynamic range. When captured or created images take a college dynamic range, they must be tone mapped in order to reduce that dynamic range.[
commendation needed
]

Storage

[edit]

Loftier-dynamic-range formats for epitome and video files are able to shop more than dynamic range than traditional viii-chip gamma formats. These formats include:

  • Formats that are just used for storage purpose, such as:
    • Raw paradigm formats
    • Formats that use a linear transfer function with high chip-depth
    • Formats that employ a logarithmic transfer function
    • OpenEXR
    • ACES
  • HDR formats that tin be used for both storage and transmission to displays, such as:
    • HDR10
    • HDR10+
    • Dolby Vision
    • HLG

OpenEXR was created in 1999 by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and released in 2003 as an open up source software library.[seven]
[viii]
OpenEXR is used for pic and television product.[8]

Academy Color Encoding Arrangement (ACES) was created past the Academy of Picture show Arts and Sciences and released in Dec 2014.[9]
ACES is a complete colour and file management system that works with almost any professional person workflow and it supports both HDR and wide color gamut. More information can be constitute at https://www.ACESCentral.com (WCG).[9]

Transmission to displays

[edit]

Loftier dynamic range (HDR) is also the common name of a technology allowing to transmit loftier dynamic range videos and images to uniform displays. That technology also improves other aspects of transmitted images, such every bit color gamut.

In this context,

  • HDR displays refers to displays compatible with that applied science.
  • HDR formats refers to formats such every bit HDR10, HDR10+, Dolby Vision and HLG.
  • HDR video refers to a video encoded in an HDR format. Thoses HDR video have a greater bit depth, luminance and color volume than standard dynamic range (SDR) video which uses a conventional gamma curve.[x]

On January 4, 2016, the Ultra HD Alliance announced their certification requirements for a HDR display.[11]
[12]
The HDR display must have either a peak effulgence of over thou cd/m2
and a black level less than 0.05 cd/one thousand2
(a contrast ratio of at least 20,000:1) or a peak effulgence of over 540 cd/chiliadii
and a black level less than 0.0005 cd/one thousandii
(a contrast ratio of at least i,080,000:i).[11]
[12]
The two options permit for unlike types of HDR displays such as LCD and OLED.[12]

Some options to use HDR transfer functions that better match the human visual organization other than a conventional gamma curve include the HLG and perceptual quantizer (PQ).[10]
[13]
[fourteen]
HLG and PQ require a bit depth of x-bits per sample.[10]
[13]

Display

[edit]

The dynamic range of a brandish refers to range of luminosity the display can reproduce, from the black level to its peak brightness.[
commendation needed
]

The contrast of a display refers to the ratio between the luminance of the brightest white and the darkest black that a monitor can produce.[fifteen]
Multiple technologies allowed to increase the dynamic range of displays.

In May 2003, BrightSide Technologies demonstrated the first HDR display at the Display Week Symposium of the Society for Information Display. The display used an array of individually-controlled LEDs behind a conventional LCD panel in a configuration known as “local dimming” today. BrightSide after introduced a variety of related display and video technologies enabling visualization of HDR content.[16]
In April 2007, BrightSide Technologies was acquired by Dolby Laboratories.[17]

OLED displays have loftier contrast. MiniLED improves contrast.[
commendation needed
]

Audio

[edit]

In Audio, the term
high dynamic range
means at that place is a lot of variation in the levels of the sound. Here, the
dynamic range
refers to the range between the highest volume and everyman volume of the sound.

XDR (audio) is used to provide college-quality audio when using microphone sound systems or recording onto cassette tapes.

HDR Sound is a dynamic mixing technique used in EA Digital Illusions CE Frostbite Engine to allow relatively louder sounds to drown out softer sounds.[18]

Dynamic range pinch is a set of techniques used in audio recording and advice to put loftier-dynamic-range material through channels or media of lower dynamic range. Optionally, dynamic range expansion is used to restore the original high dynamic range on playback.

Radio

[edit]

In radio, high dynamic range is important specially when there are potentially interfering signals. Measures such as spurious-free dynamic range are used to quantify the dynamic range of diverse system components such every bit frequency synthesizers. HDR concepts are important in both conventional and software-defined radio design.

Instrumentation

[edit]

In many fields, instruments need to have a very high dynamic range. For case, in seismology, HDR accelerometers are needed, as in the ICEARRAY instruments.

Realtime HDR vision

[edit]

Isle of mann’south HDR (high-dynamic-range) welding helmet augments the image in nighttime areas and diminishes it in bright areas, thus implementing computer-mediated reality.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Steve Mann invented the Generation-1 and Generation-2 “Digital Middle Glass”, every bit a vision help to assist people encounter meliorate, with some versions being built into welding helmets for HDR vision
[19]
[xx]
[21]
[22]
See also, IEEE Technology and Society Mag 31(3)[23]
and the supplemental material entitled “GlassEyes”.
[24]

See also

[edit]

  • Rec. 2100 – ITU-R Recommendation for HDR
  • Ultra HD Forum – Organisation that has created standards for HDR
  • Color space
  • Color grading

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    Robertson, Marker A.; Borman, Sean; Stevenson, Robert Fifty. (April 2003). “Interpretation-theoretic approach to dynamic range enhancement using multiple exposures”.
    Journal of Electronic Imaging.
    12
    (2): 220, right column, line 26219–228. Bibcode:2003JEI….12..219R. doi:ten.1117/1.1557695.
    The first report of digitally combining multiple pictures of the same scene to ameliorate dynamic range appears to be Isle of man



  2. ^


    Frédéric Dufaux, Patrick Le Callet, Rafal Mantiuk, Marta Mrak (2016).
    Loftier Dynamic Range Video – From Acquisition to Brandish and Applications. doi:ten.1016/C2014-0-03232-vii. ISBN978-0-08-100412-viii.



    {{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors listing (link)


  3. ^

    “Compositing Multiple Pictures of the Aforementioned Scene”, by Steve Mann, in IS&T’southward 46th Annual Briefing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 9–fourteen, 1993

  4. ^


    Reinhard, Erik; Ward, Greg; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Debevec, Paul (2005).
    High dynamic range imaging: conquering, display, and epitome-based lighting. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann. p. 7. ISBN978-0-12-585263-0.
    Images that store a depiction of the scene in a range of intensities commensurate with the scene are what nosotros call HDR, or “radiance maps”. On the other mitt, we telephone call images suitable for display with electric current display engineering LDR.



  5. ^


    Arnaud Darmont (2012).
    Loftier Dynamic Range Imaging: Sensors and Architectures
    (First ed.). SPIE press. ISBN978-0-81948-830-5.



  6. ^


    Simon Green and Cem Cebenoyan (2004). “Loftier Dynamic Range Rendering (on the GeForce 6800)”
    (PDF).
    GeForce six Series. nVidia. p. 3.



  7. ^


    “Industrial Calorie-free & Magic Releases Proprietary Extended Dynamic Range Image File Format OpenEXR to Open up Source Community”
    (PDF)
    (Press release). 22 January 2003. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on 21 July 2017. Retrieved
    27 July
    2016
    .


  8. ^


    a




    b




    “Chief OpenEXR spider web site”. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved
    27 July
    2016
    .


  9. ^


    a




    b




    “ACES”. University of Motion Pic Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on ane August 2016. Retrieved
    29 July
    2016
    .


  10. ^


    a




    b




    c




    T. Borer; A. Cotton fiber. “A “Display Independent” High Dynamic Range Television Arrangement”
    (PDF). BBC. Retrieved
    2015-eleven-01
    .


  11. ^


    a




    b




    “UHD Alliance Defines Premium Home Entertainment Feel”. Business Wire. 2016-01-04. Retrieved
    2016-07-24
    .


  12. ^


    a




    b




    c




    “What is UHD Alliance Premium Certified?”. CNET. 2016-03-11. Retrieved
    2016-07-24
    .


  13. ^


    a




    b




    Adam Wilt (2014-02-20). “HPA Tech Retreat 2014 – Mean solar day 4”. DV Info Internet. Retrieved
    2014-eleven-05
    .



  14. ^


    Bryant Frazer (2015-06-09). “Colorist Stephen Nakamura on Grading Tomorrowland in HDR”. studiodaily. Retrieved
    2015-09-21
    .



  15. ^


    “Our Monitor Picture Quality Tests: Contrast”.
    RTINGS.com
    . Retrieved
    2021-12-29
    .



  16. ^


    Seetzen, Helge; Whitehead, Lorne A.; Ward, Greg (2003). “54.2: A High Dynamic Range Display Using Depression and Loftier Resolution Modulators”.
    SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers.
    34
    (1): 1450–1453. doi:10.1889/1.1832558. ISSN 2168-0159. S2CID 15359222.



  17. ^


    “Dolby Laboratories (DLB) Acquires BrightSide for $28M”.
    StreetInsider.com
    . Retrieved
    2021-08-17
    .

    .

  18. ^


    EA DICE/Electronic Arts (2007). “Battleground: Bad Company – Frostbite Engine Trailer”
    (video). Electronic Arts. Archived from the original on 2021-12-22.



  19. ^

    Quantigraphic camera promises HDR eyesight from Father of AR, past Chris Davies, SlashGear, Sep 12th 2012

  20. ^


    Ackerman, Elise (31 Dec 2012). “Why Smart Glasses Might Not Brand You lot Smarter”. IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved
    1 Jan
    2017
    .



  21. ^


    Isle of man, Steve (February 1997). “Wearable Calculating: A Beginning Step Toward Personal Imaging”.
    IEEE Estimator.
    30
    (2): 25–32. doi:10.1109/2.566147. S2CID 28001657.



  22. ^


    “A magical welding helmet that lets you see the world in HDR–in real-fourth dimension”. Archived from the original on 2016-03-28. Retrieved
    2018-03-24
    .



  23. ^


    Isle of man, Steve (Fall 2012). “Through the Glass, Lightly”.
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine.
    31
    (iii): 10–14. doi:10.1109/MTS.2012.2216592.



  24. ^


    ‘GlassEyes’: The Theory of EyeTap Digital Eye Glass, supplemental material for ‘Through the Glass, Lightly’
    (PDF).
    IEEE Applied science and Guild Magazine.
    31
    (3). Autumn 2012.


External links

[edit]

  • “High Dynamic Range (HDR) on Intel Graphics”
    (PDF). Intel Corporation. Nov 2017.



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_dynamic_range