When Did Color Pictures Come Out

By | 10/11/2022

Photography that reproduces colors

The starting time color photograph made by the three-colour method suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton. The bailiwick is a colored ribbon, usually described every bit a tartan ribbon.

Color photography
is photography that uses media capable of capturing and reproducing colors. By contrast, black-and-white or gray-monochrome photography records only a single aqueduct of luminance (brightness) and uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.

In colour photography, electronic sensors or light-sensitive chemicals record color data at the time of exposure. This is usually done by analyzing the spectrum of colors into three channels of information, one dominated past red, another by green and the third by blue, in faux of the way the normal human eye senses color. The recorded data is and so used to reproduce the original colors by mixing diverse proportions of cherry-red, green and blue light (RGB color, used past video displays, digital projectors and some historical photographic processes), or by using dyes or pigments to remove various proportions of the red, green and blue which are present in white light (CMY color, used for prints on paper and transparencies on film).

Monochrome images which take been “colorized” by tinting selected areas by hand or mechanically or with the aid of a computer are “colored photographs”, non “color photographs”. Their colors are not dependent on the actual colors of the objects photographed and may be inaccurate.

The foundation of all applied color processes, the iii-color method was first suggested in an 1855 newspaper past Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, with the first colour photograph produced by Thomas Sutton for a Maxwell lecture in 1861.[1]
[2]
Colour photography has been the dominant form of photography since the 1970s, with monochrome photography mostly relegated to niche markets such as art photography.

History

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Early on experiments

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A circa 1850 “Hillotype” photograph of a colored engraving. Long believed to be a complete fraud, recent testing constitute that Levi Loma’s process did reproduce some color photographically, but as well that many specimens had been “sweetened” by the add-on of hand-practical colors.

Color photography was attempted beginning in the 1840s. Early on experiments were directed at finding a “chameleon substance” which would assume the color of the light falling on it. Some encouraging early results, typically obtained past projecting a solar spectrum directly onto the sensitive surface, seemed to hope eventual success, simply the insufficiently dim prototype formed in a camera required exposures lasting for hours or even days. The quality and range of the color was sometimes severely limited mainly to primary colors, equally in the chemically complicated “Hillotype” process invented by American daguerreotypist Levi Hill around 1850. Other experimenters, such as Edmond Becquerel, achieved better results just could find no fashion to preclude the colors from quickly fading when the images were exposed to calorie-free for viewing. Over the following several decades, renewed experiments forth these lines periodically raised hopes and then dashed them, yielding nothing of practical value.

Three-color processes

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The three-color method, which is the foundation of near all practical color processes whether chemic or electronic, was offset suggested in an 1855 paper on colour vision by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.[1]
[2]

It is based on the Young–Helmholtz theory that the normal man eye sees color because its inner surface is covered with millions of intermingled cone cells of three types: in theory, ane type is most sensitive to the end of the spectrum we call “ruby”, another is more sensitive to the middle or “light-green” region, and a third which is most strongly stimulated by “bluish”. The named colors are somewhat arbitrary divisions imposed on the continuous spectrum of visible calorie-free, and the theory is non an entirely accurate description of cone sensitivity. Just the uncomplicated description of these 3 colors coincides enough with the sensations experienced by the center that when these three colors are used the three cones types are fairly and unequally stimulated to form the illusion of various intermediate wavelengths of light.

In his studies of color vision, Maxwell showed, by using a rotating deejay with which he could change the proportions, that any visible hue or grayness tone could be made by mixing only iii pure colors of light – red, greenish and blue – in proportions that would stimulate the three types of cells to the same degrees under particular lighting conditions.[iii]
To emphasize that each blazon of prison cell by itself did not actually see color but was simply more or less stimulated, he drew an analogy to black-and-white photography: if iii colorless photographs of the same scene were taken through crimson, greenish and blue filters, and transparencies (“slides”) made from them were projected through the same filters and superimposed on a screen, the result would be an image reproducing not only red, green and blue, but all of the colors in the original scene.[4]

The outset color photograph fabricated according to Maxwell’south prescription, a set of three monochrome “colour separations”, was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in illustrating a lecture on colour by Maxwell, where it was shown in colour by the triple projection method.[v]
The test field of study was a bow made of ribbon with stripes of various colors, plain including red and greenish. During the lecture, which was almost physics and physiology, not photography, Maxwell commented on the inadequacy of the results and the need for a photographic material more than sensitive to cherry and dark-green low-cal. A century subsequently, historians were mystified by the reproduction of any cherry-red at all, because the photographic procedure used by Sutton was for all applied purposes totally insensitive to red light and only marginally sensitive to green. In 1961, researchers found that many cherry-red dyes as well reflect ultraviolet light, coincidentally transmitted by Sutton’south red filter, and surmised that the three images were probably due to ultra-violet, blue-light-green and blue wavelengths, rather than to red, green and bluish.[6]

Additive color

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Creating colors past mixing colored lights (usually red, dark-green and blue) in various proportions is the additive method of color reproduction. LCD, LED, plasma and CRT (picture tube) color video displays all use this method. If ane of these displays is examined with a sufficiently stiff magnifier, information technology volition be seen that each pixel is really equanimous of ruby, green and bluish sub-pixels which blend at normal viewing distances, reproducing a wide range of colors likewise as white and shades of gray. This is likewise known as the RGB color model.

Subtractive colour

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The same three images taken through red, green and blue filters which are used for additive color synthesis may as well exist used to produce color prints and transparencies by the subtractive method, in which colors are subtracted from white light by dyes or pigments. In photography, the dye colors are commonly cyan, a light-green-blue which absorbs cherry-red; magenta, a purplish-pink which absorbs green; and yellowish, which absorbs blue. The red-filtered image is used to create a cyan dye paradigm, the green-filtered image to create a magenta dye paradigm, and the blue-filtered paradigm to create a yellow dye prototype. When the three dye images are superimposed they form a complete color paradigm.

This is also known equally the CMYK color model. The “Yard” is a blackness component normally added in ink-jet and other mechanical press processes to compensate for the imperfections of the colored inks used, which ideally should absorb or transmit various parts of the spectrum but non reflect any colour, and to improve image definition.

Color print made past Louis Ducos du Hauron from three direct photograms, 1869 or 1870 a presentation copy of this bears an early (February?) 1870 appointment on the mat in DdH’s handwriting, may refer to print only, original photography perchance 1869

At beginning it may seem that each image ought to be printed in the color of the filter used in making it, but by following whatsoever given color through the process the reason for press in complementary colors should become apparent. A scarlet object, for example, will be very pale in the red-filtered image but very dark in the other two images, and then the outcome volition be an expanse with just a trace of cyan, absorbing just a chip of ruddy light, but a big corporeality of magenta and yellow, which together absorb most of the green and blue light, leaving mainly ruddy light to be reflected back from the white paper in the case of a print, or transmitted through a articulate back up in the case of a transparency.

Before the technical innovations of the years 1935 to 1942, the only manner to create a subtractive total-color print or transparency was by means of one of several labor-intensive and fourth dimension-consuming procedures. Most commonly, iii pigment images were offset created separately by the so-chosen carbon process and so carefully combined in annals. Sometimes, related processes were used to brand 3 gelatin matrices which were dyed and assembled or used to transfer the three dye images into a single layer of gelatin coated on a final back up. Chemic toning could be used to convert three black-and-white silver images into cyan, magenta and yellow images which were then assembled. In a few processes, the three images were created i on top of another by repeated coating or re-sensitizing, negative registration, exposure and development operations. A number of variations were devised and marketed during the first half of the 20th century, some of them short-lived, others, such as the Trichrome Carbro procedure, enduring for several decades. Considering some of these processes allow very stable and low-cal-fast coloring matter to be used, yielding images which can remain virtually unchanged for centuries, they are still not quite completely extinct.

An 1877 color photographic print on paper past Louis Ducos du Hauron, the foremost early on French pioneer of color photography. The overlapping yellow, cyan and red subtractive color elements are apparent.

The production of photographic three-colour prints on newspaper was pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron, whose comprehensive 1868 French patent also included the bones concepts of most of the color photographic processes which were subsequently developed. For making the three color-filtered negatives required, he was able to develop materials and methods which were not as completely blind to red and green calorie-free equally those used by Thomas Sutton in 1861, but they were still very insensitive to those colors. Exposure times were impractically long, the carmine or orangish-filtered negative requiring hours of exposure in the camera. His earliest surviving color prints are “lord’s day prints” of pressed flowers and leaves, each of the three negatives having been made without a photographic camera by exposing the calorie-free-sensitive surface to direct sunlight passing first through a color filter and then through the vegetation. His first attempts were based on the red-yellow-blueish colors then used for pigments, with no color reversal. Subsequently he used the main colors of light with color reversal.

Color sensitization

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As long equally photographic materials were usefully sensitive just to blue-green, bluish, violet and ultraviolet, three-color photography could never be practical. In 1873 German pharmacist Hermann Wilhelm Vogel discovered that the improver of minor amounts of sure aniline dyes to a photographic emulsion could add together sensitivity to colors which the dyes captivated. He identified dyes which variously sensitized for all the previously ineffective colors except truthful red, to which just a marginal trace of sensitivity could exist added.[vii]
[viii]
[9]
[10]
In the following year, Edmond Becquerel discovered that chlorophyll was a proficient sensitizer for red.[eleven]
Although it would exist many more than years before these sensitizers (and better ones adult later) constitute much use beyond scientific applications such as spectrography, they were quickly and eagerly adopted by Louis Ducos du Hauron, Charles Cros and other color photography pioneers. Exposure times for the “trouble” colors could now be reduced from hours to minutes. As ever-more than-sensitive gelatin emulsions replaced the old moisture and dry out collodion processes, the minutes became seconds. New sensitizing dyes introduced early on in the 20th century somewhen fabricated so-called “instantaneous” colour exposures possible.

Color cameras

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Making color separations past reloading the camera and changing the filter betwixt exposures was inconvenient, added delays to the already long exposure times and could upshot in the camera being accidentally shifted out of position. To amend the actual moving-picture show-taking, a number of experimenters designed one or more than special cameras for color photography. They were normally of ii main types.

The showtime type used a system of partially reflecting surfaces to divide the low-cal coming through the lens into three parts, each part passing through a different color filter and forming a separate image, so that the 3 images could be photographed at the same time on three plates (flexible picture show had not nonetheless replaced glass plates as the support for the emulsion) or dissimilar areas of one plate. Later on known equally “one-shot” cameras, refined versions continued to exist used equally late as the 1950s for special purposes such as commercial photography for publication, in which a gear up of color separations was ultimately required in lodge to prepare printing plates.

The second type, known variously as a multiple dorsum, repeating back or drib back camera, notwithstanding exposed the images one at a time merely used a sliding holder for the filters and plates which allowed each filter and the corresponding unexposed area of emulsion to be quickly shifted into place. German photochemistry professor Adolf Miethe designed a high-quality camera of this type which was commercially introduced by Bermpohl in 1903. It was probably this Miethe-Bermpohl camera which was used by Miethe’s pupil Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii to make his now-celebrated color photographic surveys of Russia before the 1917 revolution. One sophisticated variant, patented by Frederic Eugene Ives in 1897, was driven past clockwork and could exist adjusted to automatically make each of the exposures for a different length of fourth dimension according to the particular color sensitivities of the emulsion being used.[14]

Otherwise unproblematic cameras with multiple color-filtered lenses were sometimes tried, but unless everything in the scene was at a great distance, or all in a plane at the same distance, the departure in the viewpoints of the lenses (parallax) made it impossible to completely annals all parts of the resulting images at the same time.

Color photography leaves the laboratory

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Prior to the belatedly 1890s color photography was strictly the domain of a very few experimenters willing to build their ain equipment, do their own colour-sensitizing of photographic emulsions, make and test their ain color filters and otherwise devote a big amount of fourth dimension and endeavour to their pursuits. At that place were many opportunities for something to go incorrect during the serial of operations required and trouble-free results were rare. Most photographers yet regarded the whole idea of color photography as a pipage dream, something merely madmen and swindlers would merits to accept achieved.

In 1898, nonetheless, it was possible to buy the required equipment and supplies ready-made. Two adequately red-sensitive photographic plates[15]
were already on the market, and two very different systems of colour photography with which to use them, described in photographic magazines for several years prior, were finally available to the public.

The most extensive and expensive of the two was the “Kromskop” (pronounced “chrome-scope”) system developed past Frederic Eugene Ives.[xvi]
This was a straightforward additive system and its essential elements had been described by James Clerk Maxwell, Louis Ducos du Hauron and Charles Cros much earlier, merely Ives invested years of work and ingenuity in refining the methods and materials to optimize colour quality, in overcoming problems inherent in the optical systems involved, and in simplifying the appliance to bring downward the toll of producing it commercially. The colour images, dubbed “Kromograms”, were in the form of sets of 3 black-and-white transparencies on drinking glass, mounted onto special cloth-tape-hinged triple cardboard frames. To see a Kromogram in color information technology had to be inserted into a “Kromskop” (generic name “chromoscope” or “photochromoscope”), a viewing device which used an arrangement of colored glass filters to illuminate each slide with the correct color of lite and transparent reflectors to visually combine them into a single full-color epitome. The nearly popular model was stereoscopic. By looking through its pair of lenses, an epitome in total natural color and 3-D was seen, a startling novelty in the late Victorian age.

The results won about-universal praise for excellence and realism. At demonstrations, Ives sometimes placed a viewer displaying a nonetheless-life subject next to the bodily objects photographed, inviting direct comparison. A Kromskop triple “lantern” could be used to projection the three images, mounted in a special metallic or wooden frame for this purpose, through filters as Maxwell had washed in 1861. Prepared Kromograms of still-life subjects, landscapes, famous buildings and works of art were sold and these were the Kromskop viewer’south usual forage, but a “multiple back” camera attachment and a prepare of iii peculiarly adjusted colour filters could be bought by “Kromskopists” wishing to brand their own Kromograms.

Kromskops and ready-made Kromograms were bought by educational institutions for their value in teaching nearly color and colour vision, as well equally past wealthy individuals. A few people fabricated their own Kromograms. These were not enough to sustain Ives’ businesses, which had been set up to exploit the system; they soon failed, but the viewers, projectors, Kromograms and several varieties of Kromskop cameras and camera attachments connected to be available through the Scientific Store in Chicago as late every bit 1907.

Screen-plate era

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A color photo made by Lippmann in the 1890s. It contains no pigments or dyes of any kind.

The simpler and somewhat more economical alternative was the Joly screen process. This required no special photographic camera or viewer, but a special colour-compensating filter for the camera lens and a special holder for the photographic plates. The holder contained the eye of the organisation: a clear glass plate on which very fine lines of 3 colors had been ruled in a regular repeating pattern, completely covering its surface. The idea was that instead of taking 3 split complete photographs through three colored filters, the filters could be in the form of a big number of very narrow strips (the colored lines) allowing the necessary colour information to be recorded in a single compound prototype. Afterwards the negative was developed, a positive transparency was printed from it and a viewing screen with cherry, green and blue lines in the same design as the lines of the taking screen was practical and carefully aligned. The colors then appeared as if past magic. The transparency and screen were very like the layer of monochrome liquid crystal elements and overlay of hair-thin cerise, green and blue color filter stripes which create the color image in a typical LCD display. This was the invention of Irish gaelic scientist John Joly, although he, like so many other inventors, eventually discovered that his basic concept had been predictable in Louis Ducos du Hauron’s long-since-expired 1868 patent.[17]

The Joly screen process had some issues. Beginning and foremost, although the colored lines were reasonably fine (about 75 sets of 3 colored lines to the inch) they were still disturbingly visible at normal viewing distances and about intolerable when enlarged by projection. This problem was exacerbated by the fact that each screen was individually ruled on a motorcar which used three pens to employ the transparent colored inks, resulting in irregularities, high reject rates and loftier cost. The drinking glass used for photographic plates at the time was not perfectly flat, and lack of uniform good contact between the screen and the paradigm gave rise to areas of degraded color. Poor contact also caused false colors to appear if the sandwich was viewed at an angle. Although much simpler than the Kromskop organisation, the Joly system was non inexpensive. The starter kit of plate holder, compensating filter, one taking screen and ane viewing screen cost U.s.$30 (the equivalent of at least $750 in 2010 dollars) and additional viewing screens were $1 each (the equivalent of at to the lowest degree $25 in 2010 dollars). This system, too, soon died of fail, although in fact it pointed the fashion to the future.

Surviving examples of the Joly process usually show extremely poor color now. The colors in the viewing screens have desperately faded and shifted, making information technology impossible to judge their original advent. In some specimens the viewing screen is as well misaligned.

Lippmann photography is a way of making a colour photo that relies on Bragg reflection planes in the emulsion to make the colors. It is similar to using the colors of soap bubbles to make an image. Gabriel Jonas Lippmann won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1908 for the cosmos of the first color photographic process using a unmarried emulsion. The method is based on the interference phenomenon.[xviii]
The colour fidelity is extremely high but the images can not be reproduced and viewing requires very specific lighting atmospheric condition. The evolution of the Autochrome procedure apace rendered the Lippmann method redundant. The method is even so utilized to make singular images that cannot be copied for security purposes.

The first commercially successful colour process, the Lumière Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the marketplace in 1907. Instead of colored strips, it was based on an irregular screen plate filter made of three colors of dyed grains of irish potato starch which were also small to be individually visible. The light-sensitive emulsion was coated directly onto the screen plate, eliminating problems due to imperfect contact betwixt the screen and image. Reversal processing was used to catechumen the negative image which was initially produced into a positive paradigm by removing the exposed argent metal, and re-exposing the remaining silvery halide, then no printing or screen registration was required. The shortcomings of the Autochrome process were the expense (one plate cost virtually as much as a dozen black-and-white plates of the same size), the relatively long exposure times which made hand-held “snapshots” and photographs of moving subjects impractical, and the density of the finished paradigm due to the presence of the light-absorbing color screen.

Viewed nether optimum conditions and by daylight as intended, a well-fabricated and well-preserved Autochrome can look startlingly fresh and bright. Unfortunately, modernistic moving-picture show and digital copies are usually fabricated with a highly diffused low-cal source, which causes loss of colour saturation and other ill effects due to lite besprinkle inside the structure of the screen and emulsion, and by fluorescent or other artificial low-cal which alters the color balance. The capabilities of the process should not exist judged by the dull, washed-out, odd-colored reproductions unremarkably seen.

Millions of Autochrome plates were manufactured and used during the quarter century before the plates were replaced by film-based versions in the 1930s. The very last film version, named Alticolor, brought the Autochrome process into the 1950s merely was discontinued in 1955. Many condiment color screen products were bachelor between the 1890s and the 1950s, but none, with the possible exception of Dufaycolor, introduced as film for still photography in 1935, was as pop or successful as the Lumière Autochrome. The most recent apply of the additive screen process for non-digital photography was in Polachrome, an “instant” 35mm slide picture show introduced in 1983 and discontinued about 20 years subsequently.

Tripacks

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Louis Ducos du Hauron had suggested using a sandwich of three differently colour-recording emulsions on transparent supports which could be exposed together in an ordinary camera, then taken autonomously and used similar any other set of three-colour separations. The trouble was that although two of the emulsions could be in contact face-to-face up, the third would have to be separated past the thickness of one transparent back up layer. Because all argent halide emulsions are inherently sensitive to blue, the blueish-recording layer ought to be on pinnacle and have a blue-blocking yellow filter layer behind it. This blue-recording layer, used to make the yellow print which could most afford to be “soft”, would finish up producing the sharpest image. The ii layers behind it, ane sensitized to red merely not green and the other to greenish only not cherry, would suffer from scattering of the calorie-free as it passed through the topmost emulsion, and one or both would further suffer by beingness spaced away from it.

Despite these limitations, some “tripacks” were commercially produced, such every bit the Hess-Ives “Hiblock” which sandwiched an emulsion on movie between emulsions coated on glass plates. For a brief flow in the early on 1930s, the American Agfa-Ansco company produced Colorol, a roll-movie tripack for snapshot cameras. The three emulsions were on unusually thin film bases. Later exposure, the scroll was sent to Agfa-Ansco for processing and the triple negatives were returned to the customer with a set of color prints. The images were not precipitous and the color was non very good, but they were genuine “natural color” snapshots.

“Bipacks” using just two emulsions face-to-face were the subject field of some development. Although the range of colors which could exist reproduced by only ii components was limited, skin tones and well-nigh hair and middle colors could exist rendered with surprising allegiance, making bipack processes a viable option for colour portraiture. In commercial exercise, however, the apply of bipacks was near entirely confined to ii-color moving-picture show systems.

If the iii layers of emulsion in a tripack did not have to exist taken apart in order to produce the cyan, magenta and yellow dye images from them, they could exist coated directly on acme of each other, eliminating the near serious problems. In fact, some chemic magic was nether development which would make that possible.

Colour film since the 1930s

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In 1935, American Eastman Kodak introduced the first modern “integral tripack” color film and called information technology Kodachrome, a name recycled from an before and completely unlike two-color procedure. Its evolution was led by the improbable team of Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky Jr. (nicknamed “Man” and “God”), 2 highly regarded classical musicians who had started tinkering with color photographic processes and ended up working with the Kodak Enquiry Laboratories. Kodachrome had three layers of emulsion coated on a single base, each layer recording i of the three condiment primaries, red, green, and blueish. In keeping with Kodak’s old “you press the button, nosotros practice the rest” slogan, the flick was simply loaded into the camera, exposed in the ordinary way, and so mailed to Kodak for processing. The complicated part, if the complexities of manufacturing the film are ignored, was the processing, which involved the controlled penetration of chemicals into the three layers of emulsion. Simply a simplified description of the procedure is appropriate in a short history: as each layer was developed into a black-and-white argent paradigm, a “dye coupler” added during that stage of development acquired a cyan, magenta or yellow dye image to be created along with it. The silver was chemically removed, leaving only the three layers of dye images in the finished film.

Initially, Kodachrome was bachelor but as 16mm film for home movies, only in 1936 it was also introduced as 8mm home movie film and short lengths of 35mm film for still photography. In 1938, sheet pic in diverse sizes for professional photographers was introduced, some changes were fabricated to cure early on problems with unstable colors, and a somewhat simplified processing method was instituted.

In 1936, the German Agfa followed with their own integral tripack film, Agfacolor Neu, which was by and large similar to Kodachrome merely had one important advantage: Agfa had found a style to incorporate the dye couplers into the emulsion layers during industry, allowing all three layers to be adult at the same time and greatly simplifying the processing. Most modern color films, excepting the at present-discontinued Kodachrome, use the incorporated dye coupler technique, merely since the 1970s nearly all have used a modification adult by Kodak rather than the original Agfa version.

In 1941, Kodak made it possible to gild prints from Kodachrome slides. The print “newspaper” was actually a white plastic coated with a multilayer emulsion similar to that on the film. These were the commencement commercially available color prints created past the chromogenic dye coupler method. In the following twelvemonth, Kodacolor film was introduced. Unlike Kodachrome, it was designed to exist candy into a negative image which showed not merely light and dark reversed but besides complementary colors. The use of such a negative for making prints on paper simplified the processing of the prints, reducing their toll.

The expense of color motion picture as compared to black-and-white and the difficulty of using information technology with indoor lighting combined to delay its widespread adoption by amateurs. In 1950, black-and-white snapshots were still the norm. Past 1960, color was much more common but still tended to be reserved for travel photos and special occasions. Color movie and color prints cost several times as much as blackness-and-white, and taking color snapshots in deep shade or indoors required flashbulbs—an inconvenience and an additional expense. Past 1970, prices were dropping, film sensitivity had improved, electronic wink units were replacing flashbulbs, and colour had get the norm for snapshot-taking in well-nigh families. Blackness-and-white film connected to be used by some photographers who preferred it for aesthetic reasons or who wanted to take pictures by existing light in depression-lite conditions, which was all the same difficult to do with color pic. They commonly did their ain developing and press. By 1980, black-and-white film in the formats used by typical snapshot cameras, as well as commercial developing and printing service for it, had almost disappeared.

Instant color picture was introduced by Polaroid in 1963. Like Polaroid’due south contemporary instant blackness-and-white film, their outset colour product was a negative-positive skin-apart process which produced a unique print on paper. The negative could not be reused and was discarded. The blight created by carelessly discarded caustic-chemic-laden Polaroid negatives, which tended to accrue most heavily at the prettiest, nearly snapshot-worthy locations, horrified Polaroid founder Edwin Land and prompted him to develop the later SX-70 system, which produced no separate negative to discard.

Some currently available colour films are designed to produce positive transparencies for utilise in a slide projector or magnifying viewer, although paper prints tin can as well be fabricated from them. Transparencies are preferred by some professional photographers who apply film because they can exist judged without having to print them first. Transparencies are as well capable of a wider dynamic range and, therefore, of a greater caste of realism than the more than convenient medium of prints on newspaper. The early popularity of colour “slides” among amateurs went into decline after automatic printing equipment began improving print quality and lowering prices.

Other currently available films are designed to produce color negatives for use in creating enlarged positive prints on color photographic paper. Color negatives may likewise be digitally scanned so printed by photographic or not-photographic means, or viewed as positives electronically. Unlike reversal-moving-picture show transparency processes, negative-positive processes are, inside limits, forgiving of incorrect exposure and poor color lighting, because printing allows considerable correction. Negative film is therefore more than suitable for casual apply by amateurs. About all single-use cameras employ negative film. Photographic transparencies can be fabricated from negatives by press them on special “positive picture”, but this has e’er been unusual outside of the movement picture industry and commercial service to exercise it for notwithstanding images may no longer be available. Negative films and paper prints are by far the most common grade of color film photography today.

Digital photography

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The Bayer arrangement of colour filters on the pixel assortment of an prototype sensor

After a transition period centered effectually 1994–2006, color picture show was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras that can shoot both in monochrome also as color. Some photographers go on to adopt flick for its distinctive “look” for artistic purposes or out of fondness.

The almost usually used method of obtaining colour information in digital photography is the utilise of a Bayer filter, invented by Bryce Bayer of Eastman Kodak in 1976. In this approach, a sensor that is sensitive to multiple wavelengths of light is placed backside a color filter. Traditionally, each pixel, or “sensel”, is thereby assigned an additional lite response curve across its inherent differential response to unlike wavelengths – typically the filters applied reply to cerise, blueish and green, the latter being used twice as often based on an statement that the human being center is more than sensitive to variation in light-green than any other color. Thus, the color paradigm produced would preserve color in a way resembling homo perception, and not appear disproportionately deteriorated in whatsoever particular color range.

Wavelength-dependent absorption in silicon and the Foveon X3 sensor. Run into text for explanation.

Yet, alternative approaches practice exist. The Foveon sensor uses the fact that low-cal penetrates silicon to a depth that depends on the wavelength of the light. Thus, reading low-cal at a lower layer in a silicon stack would yield a unlike value than reading it at the pinnacle, and the deviation can be used to compute the color of the light in improver to its intensity.

Another selection is the use of a prism to split the colors onto three separate capturing devices, as in a iii-CCD camera.

The Bayer pattern itself has had various modifications proposed. Ane form of these uses the same pattern, merely changes the colors of the drinking glass, for instance using cyan, yellowish, green and magenta for increased sensitivity to the intensity of calorie-free (luminance) or replacing 1 green cell with an “emerald” or cyan one.

Fujifilm in particular has proposed some of the more unusual variations of the Bayer design, such as the EXR and X-Trans patterns.


Artists’ perspectives

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Photographers differed in opinion about color photography when information technology was introduced. Some fully embraced it when information technology was available to the public in the late 1930s, while others remained skeptical of its relevance in the fine art of photography.

Proponents

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Paul Outerbridge was an American photographer prominent for his early use and experiments in color photography. He began writing a monthly column on color photography for the U.S. Camera Magazine around 1930. Outerbridge became known for the high quality of his color illustrations, made by an extremely complex tri-color carbro process.[19]
In 1940 he published his seminal book
Photographing in Color, using high quality illustrations to explain his techniques.[20]

Ferenc Berko, a classic photographer[
vague
]

who lived during the rise of colour flick, was one of the photographers who immediately recognized the potential of color film. He saw it equally a new manner to frame the world; a mode to experiment with the subjects he photographed and how he conveyed emotion in the photograph.[21]

John Hedgecoe, another photographer who lived during this time catamenia,[
vague
]

was another instance of those who preferred color. He published a volume entitled
The Art of Color Photography, in which he explained the importance of agreement the “special and often subtle relationships between different colors”. He also described the psychological and emotional power that color tin have on the viewer, since certain colors, he argues, tin make people feel a certain way.[22]

William Eggleston is widely credited with increasing recognition for color photography as a legitimate creative medium.

Jan Groover, a postmodernist noted for her piece of work during the 1970s used colour extensively in her work.

Skeptics

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Though color photography had its followers, black-and-white still remained the more pop and respected picture when color get-go came out.

According to Eggleston, his erstwhile idol, Henri Cartier-Bresson, said to him at a political party, “William, colour is bullshit”, and so not another word.[23]

Harold Baquet, for instance—a relatively current photographer[
vague
]

known best for documenting New Orleans civil rights—was not bang-up on color. He preferred to have pictures mainly using black-and-white film. When asked about his reasoning for this preference during an interview, he replied “The less is more than thing. Sometimes the color distracts from the essential subject. Sometimes, simply lite, line and class is enough, and it allows you to explore the sculptural qualities of that third dimension, that illusional dimension of depth. And it’southward fun”.[24]
This aversion to color was due mainly to a fright of losing simplicity in his pictures. He worried that colour gave the middle too much to take in.[24]

This worry was not uncommon. Photographer Ansel Adams, known best for his dramatic black-and-white landscapes, also felt that color could be distracting, and could therefore divert the artist’s attention away from creating a photograph to his full potential, according to some experts. Adams really claimed that he could get “a far greater sense of ‘color’ through a well-planned and executed black-and-white image than [he had] ever achieved with colour photography”.[25]
Some other expert source[
vague
]

mentioned that Adams was a “master of control”. He wrote books nigh technique, developed the Zone System—which helped determine the optimal exposure and development time for a given photograph—and introduced the thought of “previsualization”, which involved the photographer imagining what he wanted his concluding print to look like before he even took the shot. These concepts and methods allowed for nearly full control of all the potential variables that gene into a final print. Because of this love for control, Adams disliked color because it lacked this element that he had mastered with black-and-white.[
commendation needed
]

While Adams initially was far from thrilled with color, he did experiment with it, unknown to many. A few examples of his color piece of work are available in the online annal of the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona. The subjects which he shot in colour ranged from portraits, to landscape, to architecture;[26]
a similar telescopic to that of his black and white piece of work. In fact, toward the finish of his life, Adams admitted[
citation needed
]

his regret of not being able to master the technique of color, according to an adept source.[
vague
]

Though a wide range of motion-picture show preference still exists among photographers today, color has, with time, gained a much larger post-obit in the field of photography.

Preservation

[edit]

Color photographic materials are impermanent and, past nature, unstable. Chromogenic color photographs, for instance, are composed of xanthous, magenta, and cyan organic dyes, which fade at different rates. Even in nighttime storage and archival fabric enclosures, deterioration is unavoidable. All the same, proper care tin filibuster fading, color shifting, and discoloration.

Environment

[edit]

Unsuitable environmental conditions will deteriorate or destroy photographs. Examples include:

  • Loftier temperature and loftier relative humidity (RH)
  • Air pollution and dirt
  • Low-cal exposure
  • Biological threats such as fungi and insects
  • Residual processing chemicals
  • Base and emulsion deterioration
  • Handling and usage
  • Improper storage and enclosures

Iii signs of aging of color images are:

  • Dark fading
    occurs regardless of the procedures taken to preserve a photograph and is unavoidable. Information technology is caused by temperature and humidity. Cyan dyes typically fade more quickly, making the image announced likewise ruby.
  • Low-cal fading
    occurs with exposure to calorie-free, e.g. while on brandish. The intensity of the calorie-free source and ultraviolet (UV) rays bear on the rate of change and fade. Magenta dyes typically fade the quickest.
  • Highlight staining
    of older color photographic papers is yellowing of the edge and highlight areas of a photograph.

Storage

[edit]

In full general, the colder the storage, the longer the lifetime of color photographs. Frost-free
cold storage
beneath freezing is i of the nigh effective ways to halt damage to colour images. Common cold storage is more costly and requires special training to remove and return items.
Cool storage
above freezing, which is more common and less costly, requires temperatures between 10–fifteen °C (50–59 °F) with xxx–40% relative humidity and higher up the dew point to eliminate condensation.

Nighttime storage
in calorie-free tight enclosures and storage boxes is brash for individual items. When materials are exposed to light during treatment, usage, or brandish, low-cal sources should be UV-filtered and intensity kept at minimum. In storage areas, 200–400 lux is recommended.[
commendation needed
]

Enclosures

[edit]

The apply of protective enclosures is the easiest method to preserve photographic materials from damage by treatment and light exposure. All protective materials should pass the
Photographic Activity Examination
(PAT) as described both past the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in standard IT9.ii–1988, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in standard 18916:2007(Due east),
Photography – Processed Photographic Materials – Photographic Activeness Test for Enclosure Materials. The PAT is an archival science exam that determines what kind of storage enclosures will preserve, prolong, and/or prevent further deterioration.

Information technology is recommended that each item accept its ain archival enclosure of appropriate size. Archival enclosures may be made of
paper
or
plastic. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

  • Paper enclosures
    should exist not-acidic, lignin-free paper and may come in either buffered or not-buffered stock. Newspaper enclosures are mostly less plush than plastic ones. Newspaper’s opacity protects photographs from lite. Its porosity may protect them from internal humidity and gaseous pollutants. However, images must be removed from the enclosure to exist viewed. This risks mishandling and vandalism.
  • Archival quality
    plastic enclosures
    are made of uncoated polyester, polypropylene, or polyethylene. They are transparent, which enables viewing the photo without removing the enclosure. Plastic is as well more resistant to tears, compared to paper. Disadvantages include being prone to static electricity and risk of ferrotyping (moisture becoming trapped between enclosure and item, causing the materials to stick to one another).

After photographic materials are individually enclosed,
housing or storage containers
provide another protective barrier, such as folders and boxes made from archival paperboard as addressed in ISO Standards 18916:2007 and 18902. Sometimes these containers must be custom-made for oddly sized materials. In full general, flat storage in boxes is recommended because it provides more stable back up, peculiarly for materials that are frail. Boxes and folders should not be over-filled.

See likewise

[edit]

People
  • John Bulmer
  • George Eastman
  • Jules Gervais-Courtellemont
  • Luigi Ghirri
  • Léon Gimpel
  • Gabriel Lippmann
  • Luis Marden
  • Otto Pfenninger
  • Stephen Shore
Other topics
  • Color move film picture
  • Colour press
  • Color television
  • Film colorization
  • Hand-coloring (easily mistaken for early color photography)
  • Photochrome
  • Photographic processes
  • Potassium ferricyanide
  • The Shackleton Expedition, on which Paget color photography was used (among other types)
  • Timeline of historic inventions

Notes

[edit]

References

[edit]

  1. ^


    a




    b




    “1861: James Clerk Maxwell’s greatest year”. King’s Higher London. 3 January 2017. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved
    3 January
    2017
    .


  2. ^


    a




    b




    “From Charles Mackintosh’s waterproof to Dolly the sheep: 43 innovations Scotland has given the world”.
    The contained. 30 December 2016. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved
    19 September
    2017
    .



  3. ^


    Maxwell, James Clerk (1855). “Experiments on colour, every bit perceived by the center, with remarks on colour-incomprehension”.
    Transactions of the Majestic Society of Edinburgh. XXI part Ii. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved
    2014-07-06
    .



  4. ^



    Science progress in the twentieth century: a quarterly journal of scientific work & thought, Volume 2. John Murray. 1908. p. 359. Archived from the original on 2019-12-xv. Retrieved
    2016-ten-10
    .


    (Annotation: in apparent deference to the primaries named past Thomas Young, Maxwell calls the short-wavelength master “violet” in the relevant paragraphs of his 1855 newspaper, though he really used blue in his own experiments, which the paper also describes, and in his 1861 demonstration)

  5. ^


    “The first colour photograph, 1861”.
    The Guardian. 3 Jan 2017. Archived from the original on 4 Jan 2017. Retrieved
    3 January
    2017
    .



  6. ^

    R.West.G. Hunt (2004).
    The Reproduction of Colour, 6th edition. Wiley. pp 9–10.
    R.M. Evans (1961a). “Some Notes on Maxwell’due south Colour Photograph.”
    Periodical of Photographic Science
    ix. pp243–246
    R.Thou. Evans (1961b). “Maxwell’due south Color Photography”.
    Scientific Photography
    205. pp 117–128.

  7. ^

    Vogel, H: “On the sensitiveness of bromide of silvery to the so-chosen chemically inactive colours”,
    Chemic News, Dec 26, 1873:318–319, copying from
    The Photographic News, appointment and page not cited but apparently December 12, 1873 (the latter not known to exist bachelor online equally of August six, 2010), in turn translated from Vogel’s own publication
    Photographische Mittheilungen, December, 1873 10(117):233–237. The capital letters used in this and other sources cited refer to the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum, in keeping with contemporary exercise. For convenience of reference: C is 656 nm, a slightly deeper red than the output of an average scarlet laser arrow; D is 589 nm, the orange-yellow light of a sodium vapor lamp; E is 527 nm, dark-green.

  8. ^

    Vogel, H: “Photograph-spectroscopic researches”,
    The Photographic News, March 20, 1874:136–137, translated from
    Photographische Mittheilungen, February, 1874 ten(119):279–283.

  9. ^

    Vogel, H: “Rendering actinic not-actinic rays”,
    The Photographic News, July iii, 1874:320–321, a straight advice (apparently in the original English) to
    The Photographic News.

  10. ^

    Meldola, R. “Recent Researches In Photography”. “Popular Scientific discipline”, October 1874, Pg.717–720 ISSN 0161-7370

  11. ^

    Becquerel, East: “The action of rays of different refrangibility upon the iodide and bromide of silver: the influence of colouring matters”,
    The Photographic News, October 23, 1874:508–509, translated from
    Comptes Rendus
    (1874) 79:185–190 (the latter downloaded from the Bibliotheque Nationale Francaise on January 28, 2006 but not straight linkable). Annotation one significant error in the
    Photographic News
    translation, page 509: “…vigorous ring between the rays C and D” (referring to Fraunhofer lines) should be “C and B” per the original French text and in agreement with subsequent mentions in the translation.

  12. ^


    Shepherd, Sanger.
    Provisional Catalogue of Appliance and Materials for Natural Colour Photography: Sanger Shepherd Process. Archived from the original on ane Apr 2016. Retrieved
    26 October
    2015
    .



  13. ^


    Hudson, Giles (2012).
    Sarah Angelina Acland: Kickoff Lady of Color Photography. Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. ISBN978-one-85124-372-3. Archived from the original on 12 Nov 2013. Retrieved
    16 January
    2013
    .


    Distributed past The University of Chicago Press Archived 2015-10-04 at the Wayback Machine in the US.

  14. ^

    Ives, F:
    Kromskop Color Photography, pages 33–35. The Photochromoscope Syndicate Limited, London, 1898. Merely a cursory clarification of this automated camera is given but a line cartoon of the machinery and the patent reference are included. An Ives one-shot photographic camera is described and illustrated on pages 30–33 and a horizontally oriented multiple back attachment is illustrated on page 37.

  15. ^

    Abney, W: “Orthochromatic photography”,
    Periodical of the Order of Arts, May 22, 1896 44:587–597 describes and illustrates (with spectrum photographs and curves) the characteristics of the Lumière Panchromatic and Cadett Spectrum plates equally of 1896. Annotation that during this period “orthochromatic” was not intended to mean “crimson-bullheaded”, although well-nigh or all commercial products so labeled indeed were, which may explain the subsequent development in the meaning of the word. The wild roller-coaster curves necessitated laborious adjustment and testing of the colour filters to obtain the iii desired curves. In the cases of the crimson and light-green filters, that could hateful quashing over ninety-nine percent of the overall sensitivity, requiring exposures measured in seconds under circumstances where ane-fiftieth of a 2d would have sufficed for unfiltered monochrome utilise. Disproportionate blue sensitivity, requiring the use of a yellowish filter for accurate monochrome rendition in daylight, was typical of commercial panchromatic emulsions far into the 20th Century. Run into as well the previously referenced Ives, F:
    Kromskop Color Photography, price list (following page fourscore) pages 1–2, and the later referenced Joly, J: “On a method…”, page 135 for mentions of the use of the Lumière Panchromatic in those systems. The culling alluded to in Ives may be the Cadett Spectrum but could as well be the Edwards Isochromatic, only slightly sensitive to red, which Ives is on tape as having employed at an earlier appointment. The Cadett
    Lightning
    Spectrum plate, with an improved spectral response bend and profoundly increased overall speed, was available by mid-1900.

  16. ^


    “Colourful stories no. 2 – the Kromskop”. 12 Jan 2008. Archived from the original on 2018-04-24. Retrieved
    2018-04-24
    .



  17. ^

    Joly, J: “On a method of photography in natural colors”,
    Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, October, 1896 six(2):127–138 includes details such as the actual reasons for the unusual colors employed in the taking screen and examples of the exposures required. The colour illustrations accept patently had considerable manus-work done by the engravers and may have been entirely paw-colored using the original transparencies as a guide. As is evident from page 127, publication was delayed past more than a year. The 1895 engagement is confirmed past the publication of a lengthy abstruse in
    Nature, Nov 28, 1895 53(1361):91–93.

  18. ^

    From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Elsevier Publishing Visitor, Amsterdam, 1967.

  19. ^


    Szarkowski, John (July 28, 1999).


    Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Collection of the Museum of Modern Fine art

    . Bulfinch.



  20. ^


    “When Color Was Vulgar: Paul Outerbridge’s Avant-Gardist’due south Eye”.
    The New Yorker. 5 Baronial 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved
    2019-08-12
    .



  21. ^


    Honan, William (March 26, 2000). “Ferenc Berko, 84, Pioneer In Apply of Color Photography”.
    The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved
    February 18,
    2017
    .



  22. ^


    Hedgecoe, John (1998).
    The Fine art of Color Photography. Reed Consumer Books.



  23. ^


    “Patrik Sandberg » WILLIAM EGGLESTON BY DREW BARRYMORE”.
    www.patriksandberg.com. Archived from the original on ix September 2012. Retrieved
    11 January
    2022
    .


  24. ^


    a




    b




    Tuley, Laura Camille (Dec 2007). “An Interview with Harold Baquet”
    (PDF).
    New Orleans Review.
    33
    (ii): 108–116. Archived
    (PDF)
    from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved
    March 21,
    2012
    .



  25. ^


    Woodward, Richard B. (November 2009). “Ansel Adams in Color”.
    Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 2018-07-17. Retrieved
    2018-07-17
    .



  26. ^


    “Ansel Adams: Browse”.
    Center for Creative Photography. University of Arizona.


General references

[edit]

  • Coe, Brian (1978).
    Colour Photography: the first hundred years 1840–1940. Ash & Grant.
  • Coote, Jack (1993).
    The Illustrated History of Colour Photography. Fountain Press Ltd., ISBN 0-86343-380-iv.
  • Preservation of Photographs. Kodak publication, no. F-30. (1979). Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Co.
  • Paine, C. (1996).
    Standards in the Museum Care of Photographic Collections. London, Uk: Museums & Galleries Commission. ISBN 0-948630-42-six.
  • Keefe, L.E.; & Inch, D. (1990).
    The Life of a Photo: Archival processing, matting, framing, storage. Boston, MA: Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80024-9, ISBN 978-0-240-80024-0.
  • Lavédrine, B.; Gandolfo, J.-P.; Monod, S. (2003).
    A Guide to the Preventive Conservation of Photograph Collections. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Conservation Institute. ISBN 0-89236-701-6, ISBN 978-0-89236-701-vi.
  • Photograph Preservation and the Research Library. (1991). Mount View, CA: The Research Libraries Grouping. ISBN 0-87985-212-7.
  • Penichon, Sylvie (2013).
    Twentieth-Century Color Photographs: Identification and Care. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Publications. ISBN 978-1-60606-156-five.
  • Reilly, J.M.;
    et al. (1998).
    Storage Guide for Color Photographic Materials. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York.
  • Ritzenthaler, M.50.; Vogt-O’Connor, D. (2006).
    Photographs: Archival intendance and management. Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists. ISBN 1-931666-17-2, ISBN 978-ane-931666-17-6.
  • Sipley, Louis Walton. (1951).
    A Half Century of Color, New York, NY: Macmillan.
  • Caring for Photographs: Display, storage, restoration. Life library of photography. (1982). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-4420-8.
  • Weinstein, R.A.; Booth, L. (1977).
    Collection, Use, and Care of Historical Photographs. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History. ISBN 0-910050-21-X.
  • Wilhelm, H.G.; Brower, C. (1993).
    The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and digital color prints, colour negatives, slides, and motion pictures. Grinnell, IA: Preservation Pub. Co. ISBN 0-911515-00-3.
  • Wythe, D. (2004).
    Museum Archives: An introduction. Chicago, IL: Gild of American Archivists. ISBN 1-931666-06-7, ISBN 978-one-931666-06-0.

Further reading

[edit]

  • Mathew Carey Lea in 1887 article appearing in Scientific American entitled “Photography in Natural Colors”.[i]
  • Rogers, David (October 2007),
    The Chemistry of Photography: From Classical to Digital Technologies, Royal Guild of Chemistry, ISBN9780854042739, OCLC 1184188382


  1. ^



    Scientific American. Munn & Company. 1887-07-09. p. 17.




Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_photography