Which Of The Following Statements About Photography Is True?

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Fine art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording lite or other electromagnetic radiation


Lens and mounting of a big-format camera

Other names Science or fine art of creating durable images
Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation
Inventor Louis Daguerre (1839)

Henry Pull a fast one on Talbot (1839)
Related Stereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Lite field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an paradigm sensor, or chemically by means of a lite-sensitive textile such every bit photographic picture. It is employed in many fields of scientific discipline, manufacturing (east.yard., photolithography), and business organisation, as well as its more than direct uses for art, picture and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.[i]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a existent epitome on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic prototype sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent paradigm, which is after chemically “developed” into a visible prototype, either negative or positive, depending on the purpose of the photographic cloth and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.



The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtós), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “light”[ii]
and γραφή (graphé) “representation past ways of lines” or “cartoon”,[3]
together meaning “drawing with light”.[4]

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the give-and-take,
photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[v]
This claim is widely reported but is non notwithstanding largely recognized internationally. The kickoff utilize of the word by the Franco-Brazilian inventor became widely known after the research of Boris Kossoy in 1980.[6]

The German newspaper
Vossische Zeitung
of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled
Photographie, discussing several priority claims – especially Henry Fox Talbot’s – regarding Daguerre’south claim of invention.[7]
The commodity is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print.[8]
Information technology was signed “J.M.”, believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[9]
The astronomer Sir John Herschel is also credited with coining the word, independent of Talbot, in 1839.[ten]

The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the give-and-take “photography”, but referred to their processes as “Heliography” (Niépce), “Photogenic Cartoon”/”Talbotype”/”Calotype” (Talbot) and “Daguerreotype” (Daguerre).[9]



Precursor technologies


A camera obscura used for drawing

Photography is the upshot of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the paradigm. The discovery of the camera obscura (“nighttime bedroom” in Latin) that provides an prototype of a scene dates back to ancient People’s republic of china. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a photographic camera obscura in the fifth and 4th centuries BCE.[11]
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of photographic camera obscura in his experiments.[13]

The Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) also invented a camera obscura as well as the start truthful pinhole photographic camera.[12]
The invention of the camera has been traced back to the work of Ibn al-Haytham.[xvi]
While the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole had been described before,[16]
Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the camera obscura,[17]
including the beginning geometrical and quantitative descriptions of the phenomenon,[18]
and was the commencement to use a screen in a dark room so that an epitome from one side of a pigsty in the surface could be projected onto a screen on the other side.[19]
He also commencement understood the relationship between the focal point and the pinhole,[20]
and performed early experiments with afterimages, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century.[15]

Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camerae obscurae that are formed past night caves on the border of a sunlit valley. A pigsty in the cavern wall will act as a pinhole photographic camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the photographic camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. It is a box with a small pigsty in one side, which allows specific light rays to enter, projecting an inverted image onto a viewing screen or paper.

The birth of photography was then concerned with inventing ways to capture and keep the image produced by the photographic camera obscura. Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[21]
and Georg Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silvery chloride,[22]
and the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham’southward Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.[23]

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[25]
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[26]
The fiction book
Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what tin be interpreted as photography.[25]

Effectually the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known effort to capture the paradigm in a camera obscura by means of a lite-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silvery nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in directly sunlight, and even fabricated shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that “the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been plant too faint to produce, in any moderate fourth dimension, an effect upon the nitrate of silver.” The shadow images somewhen darkened all over.[27]



Primeval known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate fabricated past Nicéphore Niépce.[28]
The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it past photographic means. This was a footstep towards the first permanent photo taken with a camera.

View of the Boulevard du Temple, a daguerreotype made past Louis Daguerre in 1838, is generally accepted as the earliest photograph to include people. It is a view of a busy street, but considering the exposure lasted for several minutes the moving traffic left no trace. Simply the ii men near the bottom left corner, one of them obviously having his boots polished past the other, remained in one identify long enough to be visible.

The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, just information technology was destroyed in a later attempt to brand prints from it.[28]
Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the
View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the paradigm of a existent-earth scene, as formed in a photographic camera obscura past a lens).[29]

Because Niépce’s camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at to the lowest degree viii hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace information technology with i that was more than practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out mail-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more calorie-free-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were nevertheless required. With an heart to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy.

Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre so redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his disability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre’south efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process. The essential elements—a silvery-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, adult by mercury vapor, and “fixed” with hot saturated salt water—were in place in 1837. The required exposure fourth dimension was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photo of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: dissimilar the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, ane human having his boots polished stood sufficiently withal throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to exist visible. The existence of Daguerre’s procedure was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a pension in exchange for the right to nowadays his invention to the world equally the gift of France, which occurred when consummate working instructions were unveiled on nineteen August 1839. In that aforementioned yr, American lensman Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portrait.

A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed past William Play a trick on Talbot in 1835. Shown hither in positive form, this may be the oldest extant photographic negative made in a camera.

In Brazil, Hercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based newspaper process in 1832, later naming it

Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Play tricks Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on newspaper as early as 1834 but had kept his work hush-hush. Subsequently reading near Daguerre’s invention in Jan 1839, Talbot published his hitherto hush-hush method and ready most improving on it. At commencement, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot’s paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype procedure, which used the chemical development of a latent image to profoundly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot’s process, dissimilar Daguerre’s, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemic photography upward to the present day, as daguerreotypes could merely be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[30]
Talbot’s famous tiny newspaper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[31]

In France, Hippolyte Bayard invented his own procedure for producing direct positive newspaper prints and claimed to have invented photography earlier than Daguerre or Talbot.[33]

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later on familiar every bit the “blueprint”. He was the first to employ the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of argent halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that information technology could exist used to “fix” silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first drinking glass negative in late 1839.

Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana–per The New York Times, “ane of the earliest and most dramatic examples of how the newborn medium of photography could change the class of history.”[34]

Advertizement for Campbell’s Photo Gallery from The Macon City Directory, circa 1877.

In the March 1851 issue of
The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his moisture plate collodion process. It became the virtually widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry out plate, introduced in the 1870s, somewhen replaced it. In that location are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive paradigm on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metallic) and the glass negative, which was used to brand positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the balance of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a procedure for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of low-cal waves. His scientifically elegant and important simply ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908.

Drinking glass plates were the medium for most original camera photography from the late 1850s until the full general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film profoundly popularized apprentice photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their drinking glass plate equivalents, and until the tardily 1910s they were non available in the large formats preferred by most professional person photographers, and so the new medium did not immediately or completely supervene upon the quondam. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the utilise of plates for some scientific applications, such as astrophotography, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser holography, it has persisted into the 21st century.



Undeveloped Arista blackness-and-white picture show, ISO 125/22°

Hurter and Driffield began pioneering piece of work on the lite sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of pic speed to be devised.

The first flexible photographic scroll picture was marketed by George Eastman, founder of Kodak in 1885, just this original “film” was actually a coating on a newspaper base. As part of the processing, the epitome-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic scroll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose known as nitrate moving-picture show.

Although cellulose acetate or “safety movie” had been introduced past Kodak in 1908,[35]
at first it found but a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was non completed for X-ray films until 1933, and although safety moving picture was always used for 16 mm and eight mm habitation movies, nitrate motion-picture show remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motility pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained the dominant course of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats.[36]
Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, movie continues to exist used past enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive “look” of moving picture based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (ane) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with pic vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors)[37]
(ii) resolution and (iii) continuity of tone.[38]



Originally, all photography was monochrome, or
black-and-white. Fifty-fifty subsequently colour moving picture was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost, chemical stability, and its “classic” photographic look. The tones and dissimilarity between light and night areas ascertain black-and-white photography.[39]
Monochromatic pictures are not necessarily equanimous of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of grey but tin involve shades of one detail hue depending on the process. The cyanotype process, for example, produces an image equanimous of blue tones. The albumen print process, publicly revealed in 1847, produces brownish tones.

Many photographers go on to produce some monochrome images, sometimes considering of the established archival permanence of well-processed argent-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a multifariousness of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic brandish can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in colour which are unsatisfactory in their original class; sometimes when presented equally black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are constitute to be more effective. Although colour photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, more often than not for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all epitome editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from ane shot in color.



Color photography was explored get-go in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not “fix” the photo to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

The first permanent colour photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published past Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855.[40]
The foundation of virtually all practical colour processes, Maxwell’s thought was to accept three separate black-and-white photographs through cherry-red, green and blue filters.[twoscore]
This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a colour epitome. Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an condiment method of colour reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of colour reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the tardily 1860s.

Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, as this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Acland demonstrates, only in its earliest years, the need for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated press processes made it extremely rare.

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three colour-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited colour “fringes” or, if quickly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

Implementation of colour photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were more often than not sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to greenish, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 all of a sudden fabricated it possible to add sensitivity to dark-green, yellow and even scarlet. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the in one case-prohibitive long exposure times required for colour, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome, the first commercially successful colour process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic colour filter layer fabricated of dyed grains of murphy starch, which allowed the three color components to exist recorded as adjacent microscopic paradigm fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct colour and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the condiment method. Autochrome plates were ane of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

Kodachrome, the first modern “integral tripack” (or “monopack”) colour film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multi-layer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded but the blue. Without special moving picture processing, the upshot would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and xanthous dye images were created in those layers past adding color couplers during a complex processing process.

Agfa’south similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Dissimilar Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently, available color films still apply a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, nearly closely resembling Agfa’southward product.

Instant color picture show, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or ii after the exposure, was introduced past Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which tin be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for utilize in creating positive color enlargements on particularly coated newspaper. The latter is now the near common grade of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo press equipment. After a transition flow centered around 1995–2005, color moving-picture show was relegated to a niche marketplace by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Moving-picture show continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive “look”.



Kodak DCS 100, based on a Nikon F3 body with Digital Storage Unit

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for flick: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital.

The first digital camera to both record and save images in a digital format was the Fujix DS-1P created by Fujfilm in 1988.[42]

In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the offset commercially available digital unmarried lens reflex photographic camera. Although its high toll precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemic changes on movie.[43]
An important difference between digital and chemic photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in moving picture-based photography and permits unlike communicative potentials and applications.

Photography on a smartphone

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than than 99% of photographs taken effectually the world are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.



Angles such every bit vertical, horizontal, or as pictured here diagonal are considered important photographic techniques

A large multifariousness of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; low-cal field photography; and other imaging techniques.



The camera is the paradigm-forming device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium tin can be the plate or picture itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic retentivity.[44]

Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the lite recording material to the required amount of lite to form a “latent image” (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras utilize an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metallic-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital paradigm is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper.

The camera (or ‘camera obscura’) is a nighttime room or bedchamber from which, as far as possible, all calorie-free is excluded except the light that forms the image. Information technology was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras tin range from pocket-sized to very big, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large picture show negatives were used (encounter Process camera).

Equally shortly equally photographic materials became “fast” (sensitive) plenty for taking candid or secret pictures, small “detective” cameras were made, some actually bearded as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the
camera) or fifty-fifty worn hidden backside an Ascot necktie with a tie pivot that was really the lens.

The motion picture camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a unmarried snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a serial of images, each called a “frame”. This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later on played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the “frame rate” (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person’s eyes and brain merge the split pictures to create the illusion of motion.[45]



Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-past-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the beginning that captured figures in motility.[46]
While known colloquially as “three-D” photography, the more than accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized past using picture show and more than recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras).



An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (east.g. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or ii networked cameras for portal-airplane dualphotography). The dualphoto apparatus can exist used to simultaneously capture both the subject area and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus calculation a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.[47]

Total-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared


Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a diverseness of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography accept opened a new direction in total spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices beyond the ultraviolet, visible and infrared pb to new creative visions.

Modified digital cameras can observe some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the nearly infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to k nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise exist detected past the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[48]

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared laissez passer or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to find the wider spectrum low-cal at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the crimson, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blueish window) and infrared (primarily blood-red and somewhat lesser the green and bluish micro-filters).

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine fine art photography, geology, forensics and law enforcement.



Layering is a photographic limerick technique that manipulates the foreground, bailiwick or middle-basis, and background layers in a way that they all work together to tell a story through the image.[49]
Layers may be incorporated by altering the focal length, distorting the perspective by positioning the camera in a certain spot.[50]
People, movement, calorie-free and a variety of objects can be used in layering.[51]

Low-cal field


Digital methods of epitome capture and display processing take enabled the new technology of “light field photography” (also known as constructed aperture photography). This process allows focusing at diverse depths of field to be selected
the photograph has been captured.[52]
Equally explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the “lite field” is understood equally 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space having attributes of ii more angles that define the direction of each ray passing through that betoken.

These additional vector attributes tin can exist captured optically through the utilise of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the final image is actually a option from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a mail service-prototype capture focus algorithm.



Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an paradigm scanner to produce digital pictures.





Amateur photographers take photos for personal employ, every bit a hobby or out of casual interest, rather than as a business or task. The quality amateur work tin be comparable to that of many professionals. Amateurs can make full a gap in subjects or topics that might non otherwise be photographed if they are not commercially useful or salable. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the paw-held camera.[53]
Xx-commencement century social media and near-ubiquitous photographic camera phones have made photographic and video recording pervasive in everyday life. In the mid-2010s smartphone cameras added numerous automatic assistance features like color management, autofocus face detection and paradigm stabilization that significantly decreased skill and effort needed to take high quality images.[54]



Commercial photography is probably best defined as whatsoever photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of fine art. In this low-cal, coin could exist paid for the subject field of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Advertizement photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are mostly done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Architectural photography focuses on capturing photographs of buildings and architectural structures that are aesthetically pleasing and accurate in terms of representations of their subjects.
  • Outcome photography focuses on photographing guests and occurrences at more often than not social events.
  • Manner and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a course of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in
    Harper’s Bazaar, emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and torso form. Glamour photography is popular in advertizement and men’s magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude.
  • 360 product photography displays a series of photos to give the impression of a rotating object. This technique is commonly used past ecommerce websites to help shoppers visualise products.
  • Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band also as the temper (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue.
  • Criminal offense scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such every bit robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography ordinarily depicts inanimate subject thing, typically commonplace objects which may exist either natural or man-made. Withal life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advert purposes.
  • Real Estate photography focuses on the product of photographs showcasing a property that is for auction, such photographs requires the utilize of wide-lens and all-encompassing knowledge in High-dynamic-range imaging photography.

Example of a studio-fabricated nutrient photograph.

  • Food photography can exist used for editorial, packaging or advertising employ. Food photography is similar to still life photography simply requires some special skills.
  • Photojournalism tin can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted every bit a documentation of a news story.
  • Paparazzi is a class of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
  • Landscape photography depicts locations.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of wild animals.

Fine art


During the 20th century, both fine fine art photography and documentary photography became accustomed by the English language-speaking art globe and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a art. At first, art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ await. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Grouping f/64 to advocate ‘straight photography’, the photograph equally a (sharply focused) matter in itself and not an simulated of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically fine art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes information technology beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the primeval images “written with low-cal”; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, simply some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.

Clive Bell in his archetype essay
states that only “significant form” tin distinguish art from what is non fine art.

There must exist some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the to the lowest degree degree, no work is birthday worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’southward frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one reply seems possible – meaning form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.[55]

On 7 Feb 2007, Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph
99 Cent II Diptychon
for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time.[56]

Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photo. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

In parallel to this development, the and then largely dissever interface between painting and photography was airtight in the early on 1970s with the work of the photograph artists Pierre Cordier (Chimigramm), Chemigram and Josef H. Neumann, Chemogram. In 1974 the chemograms by Josef H. Neumann ended the separation of the painterly background and the photographic layer past showing the flick elements in a symbiosis that had never existed earlier, as an unmistakable unique specimen, in a simultaneous painterly and at the same fourth dimension existent photographic perspective, using lenses, within a photographic layer, united in colors and shapes. This Neumann chemogram from the seventies of the 20th century thus differs from the kickoff of the previously created cameraless chemigrams of a Pierre Cordier and the photogram Man Ray or László Moholy-Nagy of the previous decades. These works of art were near simultaneous with the invention of photography by various important artists who characterized Hippolyte Bayard, Thomas Wedgwood, William Henry Fox Talbot in their early stages, and subsequently Human being Ray and László Moholy-Nagy in the twenties and by the painter in the thirties Edmund Kesting and Christian Schad by draping objects direct onto appropriately sensitized photo paper and using a light source without a camera.



National Guardsman in Washington D.C. (2021)

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or circulate) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to withal images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (due east.m., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or glory photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and assist communities connect with i other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable nearly events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a artistic format that is non only informative, merely also entertaining, including sports photography.

Science and forensics


The camera has a long and distinguished history as a ways of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for case), small creatures and plants when the photographic camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera too proved useful in recording law-breaking scenes and the scenes of accidents, such every bit the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for utilize in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from iii vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up.[58]

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Managing director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Dissimilar machines produced 12- or 24- hr photographic traces of the infinitesimal-by-infinitesimal variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.[59]
Charles Brooke a footling subsequently developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.[61]

Science uses image applied science that has derived from the pattern of the Pin Hole photographic camera. 10-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Pigsty cameras with high-grade filters and light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation radiation.[62]
Photography has get universal in recording events and data in science and technology, and at criminal offence scenes or blow scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such every bit infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, too equally spectroscopy. Those methods were start used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time.[63]

The commencement photographed atom was discovered in 2022 by physicists at Griffith University, Commonwealth of australia. They used an electrical field to trap an “Ion” of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic moving picture.[64]

Wildlife Photography


Wild animals photography involves capturing images of various forms of wild fauna. Unlike other forms of photography such as product or food photography, successful wild fauna photography requires a photographer to choose the correct place and right time when specific wildlife are present and active. It frequently requires not bad patience and considerable skill and control of the right photographic equipment.[65]

Social and cultural implications


At that place are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her
On Photography
(1977), Susan Sontag dismisses the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated discipline within the photographic community.[66]
Sontag argues, “To photograph is to appropriate the matter photographed. It means putting ane’due south self into a certain relation to the earth that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power.”[67]
Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photograph, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective class of representation.

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on order. In Alfred Hitchcock’s
Rear Window
(1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. ‘Although the photographic camera is an observation station, the human action of photographing is more than passive observing’.[67]

The camera doesn’t rape or fifty-fifty possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, misconstrue, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, dissimilar the sexual push button and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.[67]

Digital imaging has raised upstanding concerns considering of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make “photomontages”, passing them every bit “real” photographs. Today’southward technology has made image editing relatively elementary for even the novice photographer. All the same, recent changes of in-camera processing let digital fingerprinting of photos to observe tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[68]
Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely attainable to children and society at large accept been raised. Specially, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that “to photograph is to turn people into objects that tin be symbolically possessed.” Desensitization word goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her business concern that the ability to conscience pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[67]

Ane of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a “tourist gaze”[69]
in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has likewise been argued that there exists a “contrary gaze”[70]
through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.



Photography is both restricted and protected by the police force in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the U.s.a., photography is protected equally a First Subpoena correct and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long as information technology is in plain view.[71]
In the UK a recent police force (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the ability of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[72]
In South Africa, whatever person may photograph any other person, without their permission, in public spaces and the only specific restriction placed on what may not exist photographed by government is related to anything classed as national security. Each land has different laws.

See besides


  • Outline of photography
  • Scientific discipline of photography
  • List of photographers
  • List of photography awards
  • Astrophotography
  • Epitome editing
  • Imaging
  • Photolab and minilab
  • Visual arts



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Further reading




  • Barrett, T 2022, Criticizing Photographs: an introduction to understanding images, 5th edn, McGraw-Colina, New York.
  • Bate, D. (2009), Photography: The Key Concepts, Bloomsbury, New York.
  • Berger, J. (Dyer, G. ed.), (2013), Understanding a Photograph, Penguin Classics, London.
  • Bright, S 2022, Art Photography At present, Thames & Hudson, London.
  • Cotton, C. (2015), The Photo as Contemporary Art, third edn, Thames & Hudson, New York.
  • Heiferman, M. (2013), Photography Changes Everything, Aperture Foundation, US.
  • Shore, S. (2015), The Nature of Photographs, 2nd ed. Phaidon, New York.
  • Wells, L. (2004),
    Photography. A Critical Introduction
    [Paperback], tertiary ed. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-30704-X



  • A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998
  • Franz-Xaver Schlegel,
    Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935, ii Bände, Stuttgart/Frg: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 3-00-004407-8.

Reference works


  • Tom Ang (2002).
    Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer. Watson-Guptill. ISBN978-0-8174-3789-3.

  • Hans-Michael Koetzle:
    Das Lexikon der Fotografen: 1900 bis heute, Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 p., ISBN 3-426-66479-8
  • John Hannavy (ed.):
    Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, 1736 p., New York: Routledge 2005 ISBN 978-0-415-97235-two
  • Lynne Warren (Hrsg.):
    Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 1719 p., New York: Routledge, 2006
  • The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005
  • “The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography”, Richard Zakia, Leslie Stroebel, Focal Printing 1993, ISBN 0-240-51417-3
  • Stroebel, Leslie (2000).
    Basic Photographic Materials and Processes. et al. Boston: Focal Press. ISBN978-0-240-80405-7.

Other books


  • Photography and The Art of Seeing
    past Freeman Patterson, Primal Porter Books 1989, ISBN 1-55013-099-four.
  • The Art of Photography:
    An Arroyo to Personal Expression by Bruce Barnbaum, Rocky Nook 2010, ISBN one-933952-68-vii.
  • Image Clarity: High Resolution Photography
    past John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-viii.

External links


  • World History of Photography From The History of Fine art.
  • Daguerreotype to Digital: A Cursory History of the Photographic Process From the Land Library & Athenaeum of Florida.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

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