Which Three Devices Are Examples Of Series Photography

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Methods and tools preceding truthful cinematographic technology

Precursors of picture
are concepts and devices that have much in common with the later art and techniques of movie house.

The Kaiserpanorama, 1880, provided a grouping stereoscope card viewing experience

Precursors of film are often referred to every bit
precinema, or ‘pre-picture palace’. Terms similar these are disliked by several historians, partly because they seem to cheapen the individual qualities of these media past presenting them as a small footstep in the evolution of a subsequently invention.[ane]
For instance: the flip book, zoetrope and phenakistiscope are very tactile devices that permit written report and play by manipulating the motion by hand, while the projected image in cinema is intangible.[2]
Such devices equally the zoetrope were not replaced by movie theater: they were yet used after the breakthrough of picture.[3]
Furthermore, many early media examples are also role of a tradition that not only shaped movie house, but too abode video, video games, computer-generated imagery, virtual reality and much more than.[4]
The written report of early on media devices is besides part of a wider and less teleological approach called media archaeology.

Many of the devices that tin can be interpreted as precursors of moving picture are also referred to every bit “philosophical toys”, or “optical toys”.



In the early on days of pic the discussion “photoplay” was quite commonly used for motion pictures. This illustrates how a flick tin exist thought of as a photographed play. Much of the product for a alive-action picture is similar to that of a theatre play, with very similar contributions past actors, a theatre managing director/film director, producers, a set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, composer, etc. Much terminology later used in film theory and motion picture criticism was already applied for theatre, such as mise en scene. Some forms of theatre, such as cantastoria, as well apply sequentially ordered pictures in a style that anticipates cinema.

Many early on films past Edison’s company, Max Skladanowsky and other pioneers, consisted of popular vaudeville acts performed in front of a camera instead of an audition. The famous motion-picture show pioneer Georges Méliès was a theatre owner and illusionist who treated picture as a means to create glasses that were even more than impressive than phase shows, with lavish stage designs and special effects. The pop féerie theatre shows had often featured stage machinery for special effects (such as smoke, moving props, changeable set up pieces) and magic tricks, but film allowed new tricks that were impossible to perform live on stage.

A few years subsequently the introduction of cinema, movies started to deviate more than and more from alive theatre experiences when filmmakers became creative with the unique possibilities that the medium provided: editing, close-ups, camera movements and special effects.

The theatre form of puppetry has not only been performed in front of cameras to create movies and television shows, it also spawned finish motility films with puppets that seem to movement all by themselves.

Shadow play


The earliest projection of images was near probable done in primitive shadowgraphy dating dorsum to prehistory. Information technology evolved into more refined forms of shadow puppetry, mostly with flat jointed cutting-out figures which are held betwixt a source of lite and a translucent screen. The shapes of the puppets sometimes include translucent colour or other types of detailing. Plato seemed to hint at shadow puppetry in his
Allegory of the Cave
(circa 380 BCE) but no other signs of shadow play in ancient Greece are known and Plato’s thought was clearly a hypothetical allegory. Shadow puppetry was maybe developed in India effectually 200 BCE, but too has a long history in Republic of indonesia (records relating to Wayang since 840 CE), Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, China (records since around 1000 CE) and Nepal. It later spread to the Ottoman empire and seems not to take reached Europe before the 17th century. It became very popular in France at the end of the 18th century. Around the time cinema was developed, several theaters in Montmartre showed elaborate “Ombres Chinoises” shows that were very successful. The famous Le Chat noir produced 45 different shows between 1885 and 1896.

Photographic camera obscura


Project of images tin can occur naturally when rays of light pass through a small pigsty and produce an inverted image on a surface in a nighttime area behind the hole. This miracle is known as camera obscura or pinhole image. Its oldest known recorded description is found in Chinese Mohist writings dated to circa 400 BCE.[v]
However, people have probably witnessed and made use of occurrences of the phenomenon since prehistoric times. Information technology has been suggested that distortions in the shapes of animals in many paleolithic cavern paintings were possibly based on distortions seen in pinhole images formed through tiny holes in tents or in screens of animal hide.[6]
Some ancient sightings of gods and spirits, especially in temple worship, are thought to perchance have been conjured up by means of photographic camera obscura or proto magic lantern projections.[five]
In Arab and European science the photographic camera obscura was used in darkened rooms since circa 1000 CE to written report light and peculiarly lord’s day eclipses.

Very occasionally the photographic camera obscura was thought of as an musical instrument for alive projections of performances to entertain an audience inside a darkened room. Purportedly Arnaldus de Villa Nova did so at the cease of the 13th century.[nine]

The utilize of a lens in the opening of a wall or airtight window shutter of a darkened room to project clearer images has been dated dorsum to 1550.[xi]

Giambattista della Porta’s very popular and influential
Magia Naturalis
helped popularize the camera obscura. In the 1558 showtime edition of the book series, Della Porta advised to apply a convex mirror to project the image onto paper and to utilise this equally a drawing help.[12]
The 1589 second edition added a “lenticular crystal” or arched lens to the setup. In this edition, Della Porta too described a way to scare people at nighttime by projecting a scary image lit by torches in one room onto a white sheet or other surface in the night nascent room. In a more than elaborate daytime use of the photographic camera obscura Della Porta proposed to project hunting scenes, banquets, battles, plays, or annihilation desired on white sheets. Trees, forests, rivers, mountains “that are really and so, or fabricated by Art, of Wood, or some other matter” could exist arranged on a patently in the sunshine on the other side of the camera obscura wall. Piffling children and animals (for instance handmade deer, wild boars, rhinos, elephants, and lions) could perform in this set. “Then, past degrees, they must announced, every bit coming out of their dens, upon the Patently: The Hunter he must come up with his hunting Pole, Nets, Arrows, and other necessaries, that may represent hunting: Allow there be Horns, Cornets, Trumpets sounded: those that are in the Chamber shall run across Trees, Animals, Hunters Faces, and all the residuum then apparently, that they cannot tell whether they be truthful or delusions: Swords drawn will glister in at the pigsty, that they will make people almost agape.” Della Porta claimed to have shown such spectacles often to his friends. They admired it very much and could hardly be convinced by Della Porta’s explanations that what they had seen was really an optical trick.[13]
Although in that location seem to be few records of the camera obscura beingness used for such elaborate spectacles, the scarier kind of “magic” was probably more or less commonplace past the start of the seventeenth century, mainly with actors portraying the devil, demons, witches or ghosts.[xvi]

In 1572, the oldest known suggestion for the camera to become mobile was described equally a lightweight wooden hut to be carried effectually on two wooden poles.[17]
More practical solutions followed in the 17th century in the shape of tents and eventually as portable wooden boxes with a viewing pane and a mirror to get an upright prototype. The camera obscura became increasingly pop as a cartoon and painting assistance for artists.

The box type camera obscura was eventually turned into the photographic camera by capturing the projected image with plates or sheets that were treated with light-sensitive chemicals.

Magic lantern and other prototype projectors


The “trotting horse lamp” [走馬燈] has been known in Communist china since before thousand CE. It is a lantern which on the inside has cut-out silhouettes attached to a shaft with a paper vane impeller on top, rotated by heated air ascension from a lamp. The silhouettes are projected on the sparse paper sides of the lantern and appear to hunt each other. Some versions showed more motion with the heads, anxiety or easily of figures connected with fine iron wire to an actress inner layer and triggered by a transversely continued iron wire.[18]
The lamp would typically show images of horses and equus caballus-riders.

Several scholars and inventors, like Giovanni Fontana (circa 1420), Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1515) and Cornelis Drebbel (1608) peradventure had early image projectors before the invention of the Magic Lantern. Athanasius Kircher’s 1645 kickoff edition of
Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae
included a description of his forerunner to the magic lantern: the “Steganographic Mirror”. This was a primitive project organisation with a focusing lens and text or pictures painted on a concave mirror reflecting sunlight, mostly intended for long distance communication.[19]
Kircher besides suggested projecting shadow puppets and living flies from the surface of the mirror.[xx]
The book was widely distributed and may have offered some inspiration for Christiaan Huygens’ invention of the magic lantern in 1659.

Moving images were possibly projected with the magic lantern since its invention; Christiaan Huygens’ 1659 sketches for slides testify a skeleton taking his skull off his cervix and placing it back. Techniques to add motion to the painted drinking glass slides were described since circa 1700. These usually involved parts (for instance limbs) painted on i or more extra pieces of glass moved by paw or small mechanisms across a stationary slide which showed the rest of the picture.[21]

In 1770 Edmé-Gilles Guyot detailed how to projection a magic lantern image on smoke to create a transparent, shimmering prototype of a hovering ghost. This technique was used in the phantasmagoria shows that became very popular in several parts of Europe between 1790 and the 1830s. Other techniques were adult to produce convincing ghost experiences. The lantern was handheld to move the projection beyond the screen (which was usually an almost invisible transparent screen behind which the lanternist operated hidden in the dark). A ghost could seem to approach the audience or grow larger past moving the lantern towards the screen, sometimes with the lantern on a trolley on track, merely like a tracking shot in films. Multiple lanterns not only could make ghosts motility independently, but were also occasionally used for superimposition in the limerick of complicated scenes. By experimenting with superimposition dissolving views were invented and became a dissever popular magic lantern show, especially in England in the 1830s and 1840s.[22]
Dissolving views typically showed a landscape changing from a winter version to a spring or summer variation by slowly diminishing the light from one version while introducing the aligned projection of the other slide. Another apply of dissolving views, projected with a triple lantern, showed a sleeping effigy while images of dreams were superimposed above its head and dissolved from ane scene to another.[23]
This is like to the use of a dissolve in moving picture.

Betwixt the 1840s and 1870s several abstract magic lantern effects were adult. This included the chromatrope which projected dazzling colorful geometrical patterns by rotating two painted glass discs in contrary directions.[24]

Occasionally minor jointed shadow puppets had been used in phantasmagoria shows.[22]
Magic lantern slides with jointed figures set in motion past levers, thin rods, or cams and worm wheels were also produced commercially and patented in 1891. A pop version of these “Fantoccini slides” had a somersaulting monkey with arms fastened to machinery that fabricated it tumble with dangling feet. Named after the Italian word for blithe puppets, like marionettes or jumping jacks.[25]

Raree show


Peep shows or “raree shows” were viewed through a hole in a box (sometimes fitted with a lens or magnifying glass) and were very popular in Europe from the 17th to 19th century. The view inside could be an exhibition of whatever kind of pictures, objects, puppets or other curiosities. It was quite common that a showman would provide dramatic narration, whil occasionally pulling a string or operate another blazon of simple machinery to change backgrounds. move figures around, or introduce new elements. Leon Battista Alberti is thought to take created the primeval impressive peep show boxes around 1437. His painted pictures may take been lit from behind with special effects every bit seen in later examples, for case to alter the appearance of a scene from day to nighttime. Around 1800 more elaborate variations with lighting effects were exhibited in small theatres.

The raree shows tin can be regarded equally a forerunner of toy theaters, dioramas, Chinese fireworks, dissolving views, the stereoscope and the kinetoscope.

Motion pictures before picture show


Stroboscopic principle


Animated GIF of
Prof. Stampfer’s Stroboscopische Scheibe
No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

Several possible examples of very early sequential images can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, on a 5,200-yr onetime pottery bowl found in Iran, in an Egyptian landscape approximately 4000 years former (found in the tomb of Khnumhotep at the Beni Hassan cemetery) and several other examples. However, it is very unlikely that these could exist viewed in motion before the invention of stroboscopic animation in the 1830s.

In 1825, the thaumatrope used a stroboscopic consequence that fabricated the brain combine incomplete pictures on either side of a twirling cardboard disc into i logical image. The effect was incorrectly attributed to a then-called “persistence of vision”, or “retinal persistence”. The technology of the thaumatrope can too exist used to brandish very simple and repetitive animation when each side of the card depicts one of two phases of an action. Nevertheless, this option was only recognized much later.

Joseph Plateau experimented with spinning discs since the mid-1820s, mainly in attempts to measure the elapsing of impressions of different colours. Along the manner he had discovered a type of abstract blitheness discs by counter-rotating lines or slits in discs in 1828[26]
(in 1829 he further developed aspects of this principle into a showtime image of what would become the anorthoscope). In 1830, Michael Faraday had published a newspaper about several illusions that occur in rotating cogwheels and toothed discs, coincidentally repeating some of Plateau’s findings. A note added to the paper discussed a disc that in add-on to the teeth in the circumference had a different amount of holes regularly spaced beyond a round zone closer to the centre of the disc. When looking into a mirror through the spaces in between the teeth, the holes appeared to be moving across the disc (or vice versa if looking through the holes). By November or December 1832, Plateau had experimentally managed to further develop the aforementioned principle into a new optical illusion that could represent whatsoever conceivable action depicted on the sections of a spinning disc (viewed in a mirror through slits in the disc). In Jan 1833, Plateau published an article that introduced the principle of stroboscopic animation with a device that became known equally the phenakistiscope. Several months later, Simon Stampfer patented a very similar “Stroboscope Disc” in Austria. Stampfer mentioned several possible variations, including a cylinder (similar to the later
zoetrope) besides equally a long, looped strip of newspaper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers (somewhat similar to flick) and a theater-like frame (much like the afterward praxinoscope theatre).

The stroboscopic disc was followed by other animation toys, such as the zoetrope (1866), the flip book (1868) and the praxinoscope (1877), before its basic principle became the foundation for the perceived motion in motion-picture show.

1847–1869: Early stroboscopic animation project


Stampfer besides suggested using the stroboscopic principle on “transparencies” and Plateau idea information technology might find application in phantasmagoria. It seemed a simple and logical next stride, merely in exercise it turned out to be relatively complicated. Autonomously from mica and glass there were hardly any transparent materials that could be used and information technology took years before mechanisms were adult that enabled fluent animation to be projected.

In 1843, T.Due west. Naylor (an experimenter from Newcastle nearly whom little else is known) published details and an analogy of his plan for a “Phantasmagoria for the projection of moving figures” (past then, the word “phantasmagoria” was oft used for a type of magic lanterns). It would use an Argand lamp or Drummond light to project sequential images from a rotating glass disk. A shutter disk would be mounted on the same axis as the picture disk to have its holes coincide with pictures when turned with a paw-crank. Naylor suggested tracing the pictures from readily bachelor printed phenakisticopes, colouring them with translucent colours mixed with oil-varnish and roofing the remaining portion of the disk with thick black pigment.[27]
Zip else has been found regarding Naylor’southward automobile, so it remains uncertain whether information technology was ever even synthetic.

On xv Jan 1847, Austrian magician Ludwig Döbler debuted his Phantaskop at the Josephstadt Theatre in Vienna. On the front, the patented apparatus had 12 lenses with different pictures. Two lenses inside the machine were cranked around to direct limelight through each consecutive image. The eight scenes, mostly depicting circus or vaudeville acts, were designed past Mr. Geyling. He took the testify to several other European cities until the spring of 1848. The multi-role optical amusement could as well feature dissolving views enhanced with an additional third image, chromatropes, or raree shows. The spectacle was mostly well-received, simply the flickering quality of the stroboscopic images was occasionally criticized.[28]

Franz von Uchatius developed two different phenakisticope-based projectors. An 1851 oil lamp version merely managed to projection weak six inch images. A later on limelight variation was demonstrated to the Austrian Academy of Sciences in 1853, with plans to construct a like apparatus with 100 lenses for 100 images to create a circa thirty-second “moving tableau”. Von Uchatius showed little interest in commercial shows and seems to accept merely performed private screenings at his home.[32]

From effectually 1853 until the 1890s J. Duboscq in Paris marketed dissimilar models of a project phénakisticope. It had a glass disc with a diameter of 34 centimeters for the pictures and a separate disc with four lenses. The discs rotated at different speeds.[32]

Thomas Ross developed a small transparent phénakisticope system, chosen
Bike of life, which fitted inside a standard magic lantern slide. A first version, patented in 1869, had a glass disc with eight phases of a motion and a counter-rotating glass shutter disc with 8 apertures. The discs depicted Water ice Skaters, Fishes, Giant’southward Ladder, Bottle Imp and other subjects. An improved version had thirteen images and a single slot shutter disc, and received British Patent 2685 on 10 October 1871.[32]

1849–1870: Photography in motion


Afterwards the introduction of photography in 1839, it took circa 10 years before this new technique was occasionally combined with phénakisticopes and proto-zoetropes. Stereoscopic photography, which became very pop in the early 1850s, led to the belief that photography could be farther developed into a perfect illusion of reality. Stereoscopic recordings with motion and colour were the logical next steps. Before the necessary photographic emulsions and mechanics were fast enough to capture a photographic sequence in existent-time, early attempts recorded fake movement sequences by photographing dissimilar poses and/or positions separately. This technique became known equally finish motion much subsequently.

In 1849, Joseph Plateau published a note about improvements for the Fantascope. He combined the stroboscopic disc with aspects of his Anorthoscope to create a 27 cm translucent disc (oiled paper on a cardboard frame) that was lit from backside and had a stroboscopic 4-slit black metal shutter disc in front. The pictures, sixteen in Plateau’south example, were designed with a 4 to v anamorphic width to compensate the deformation of the resulting prototype. The animation could be seen with both eyes past several people at the same time, with greatly improved paradigm quality. A screen behind the translucent disc blocked the calorie-free, except for a cutout trapezoid area that corresponded with the infinite where the figures were visible at the proper position. A gear organisation for the rotation ensured that the image would appear in the right surface area. Plateau used the translucency of the disc to create lite furnishings in the designs. I extant disc, made in collaboration with painter Jean Baptiste Madou, shows a demon’due south caput blowing on a glowing coal. Plateau stated that the illusion could be advanced even further with an idea communicated to him past Charles Wheatstone: a combination of Fantascope and stereoscope. Plateau believed 2 copies of his improved Fantascope could be adapted to deliver stereoscopic images to Wheatstone’due south reflecting stereoscope. He thought the structure of a sequential set of stereoscopic image pairs would be more than difficult. Wheatstone had suggested using photographs on paper of a solid object, for example a statuette. Plateau concluded that for this purpose sixteen plaster models could exist made with 16 regular modifications. He believed such a project would take much time and careful attempt, but would be well wort it because of the expected marvelous results.[35]
Unfortunately, the plan was never executed, possibly because Plateau became nigh completely blind past this time. Eventually the idea was communicated to instrumentmaker Jules Duboscq, who since 1850 very successfully marketed a stereoscope with lenses in collaboration with David Brewster (he also sold Wheatstone’s version with mirrors, became the French publisher for Plateau’s Fantascope and offered a projector on wheels for phantasmagoria, amidst many other optical instruments).[36]

Duboscq patented the stéréoscope on xvi February 1852, with mention of a projection variation. On 12 November 1852 he applied for an addition certificate to include his “Stéréoscope-fantascope, ou Bïoscope”.[37]
Basically a combination of Plateau’s standard fantascope and the stereoscope, it used two pocket-size mirrors in dissimilar angles next to each other that reflected stereoscopic paradigm pairs (printed to a higher place each other on the stroboscopic disc) into the stereoscope viewer. Of iii planned variations merely ane was actually produced, but it wasn’t very successful commercially. Only i extant disc is known, from the Joseph Plateau estate kept at the Ghent University.[38]
Information technology has stereoscopic sets of a sequence of photographic images of a automobile in action. No original viewing device has resurfaced, but parts of it are known from an illustration in an 1853 advertising.

In 1851, Antoine Claudet wrote to French magazine
La Lumière
in response to a patent given to the Mayer brothers for their “multiplicateur”, which photographed multiple (identical) images onto a unmarried plate (a technique that created the carte du jour de visite format that was very popular in the 1860s). Claudet claimed to have invented something very like in 1844, with results exhibited at the French Industrial Exposition of 1844, including a self portrait that showed 12 sides of his face.[39]
Earlier the end of 1851, Claudet claimed to have created a stereoscope that showed people in motion.[40]
The stereo viewer could show a move of 2 phases repetitively. During the next two years, Claudet worked on a photographic camera that would tape stereoscopic pairs for 4 different poses (patented in 1853).[41]
Claudet found that the stereoscopic issue didn’t work properly in this device, simply believed the illusion of motility was successful.[42]

Musical instrument maker Francis Herbert Wenham (or mayhap a lesser known Frederic Wenham) would claim in 1895 that he had already made a series of ten stereoscopic images to be viewed on two phenakistiscopes in 1852.[43]

Czermak’s 1855 Stereophoroskop

In 1855, Johann Nepomuk Czermak’s published an article about his Stereophoroskop and other experiments aimed at stereoscopic moving images. He mentioned a method of sticking needles in a stroboscopic disc, so that they would announced as if moving in and out of the cardboard when animated. He supposed that this principle provided endless possibilities to make different 3D animations. He then introduced ii methods to animate stereoscopic pairs of images, one was basically a stereo viewer using ii stroboscopic discs and the other was more or less similar to the afterwards zoetrope (but in a vertical position with horizontal slits). Czermak explained how suitable stereoscopic photographs could exist made past recording a series of models, with an example of a growing pyramid.[45]

During the 1850s the first examples of instantaneous photography appeared, which further inspired promise for the possibilities of motion photography. In 1860, John Herschel envisioned the stereoscopic representation of scenes in activity. He figured that photography could already, or would presently be able to have snap-shots in 1 tenth of a 2d and that a mechanism was possible “by which a prepared plate may be presented, focused, impressed, displaced, secured in the dark, and replaced by another inside ii or 3 tenths of a second”. Obviously without knowledge of Duboscq’s stéréofantascope, Herschel believed the “phenakistoscope” (sic) could very well be adapted into a viewer for stereoscopic motion photography pairs. He also had high hopes for the evolution of colour photography, since he himself had already obtained promising results.[46]

In 1858, Joseph Charles d’Almeida published descriptions of two methods that he had successfully adult to project stereoscopic images. The first was an anaglyph method with red and green glasses, the second used the stroboscopic principle to alternately present each picture to the corresponding heart in quick succession. D’Almeida had started work on combining this method with the principles of the phénakisticope.[47]

On 27 February 1860 Peter Hubert Desvignes received British patent no. 537 for 28 monocular and stereoscopic variations of cylindrical stroboscopic devices. This included a version that used an endless band of pictures running between ii spools that was intermittently lit by an electric spark.[48]
Mimoscope, received an Honourable Mention “for ingenuity of construction” at the 1862 International Exhibition in London.[49]
Information technology could “exhibit drawings, models, single or stereoscopic photographs, and so as to animate creature movements, or that of machinery, showing various other illusions.”[50]
Desvignes “employed models, insects and other objects, instead of pictures, with perfect success.” The horizontal slits (similar in Czermak’s Stereophoroskop) allowed a much improved view, with both eyes, of the opposite pictures.[51]

In 1861 American engineer Coleman Sellers II received Us patent No. 35,317 for the kinematoscope, a device that exhibited “stereoscopic pictures as to brand them represent objects in motility” on drinking glass plates, linked together in a chain, and mounted in a box. In his awarding he stated: “This has frequently been done with plane pictures simply has never been, with stereoscopic pictures”. He used 3 sets of stereoscopic photographs in a sequence with some duplicates to regulate the catamenia of a elementary repetitive motility, but besides described a system for very large series of pictures of complicated movement.[52]

In 1861 Samuel Goodale patented a mitt-turned stereoscope device which chop-chop moves stereo images past a viewer,[54]
in a fashion similar to the later on mutoscope.

Around 1865, a disc with nine oval photographic images of Jan Evangelista Purkyně (1787–1869) turning around was probably created past the physiologist himself.[55]
Purkyně reportedly used the disc to entertain his grandchildren and show them how he, an sometime professor, could turn around at nifty speed.[56]
The damaged disc is preserved in the collection of the National Technical Museum in Prague.

On 5 February 1870, Philadelphia engineer Henry Renno Heyl presented three film scenes with his Phasmatrope to 1500 persons at a church entertainment evening at the Philadelphia Academy of Music. Each scene was projected from its own a intermittent spur geared rotating disk with 16 photographic images. The only known extant disk repeated four images of a waltzing couple four times and was played with advisable musical accessory of a xl-person orchestra. A disk depicting a Brother Jonathan voice communication was voiced live by an role player, and the other disc showed a jumping Japanese acrobat. Heyl’s only known other evidence was a screening on 16 March 1870 at the Franklin Establish.[29]

1860s–1878: Du Mont, Ducos du Hauron and Donisthorpe’southward early on patents and concepts


During the 1850s the starting time examples of instantaneous photography had appeared, which further inspired hope for the possibilities of motion photography.

In 1860, John Herschel envisioned the stereoscopic representation of scenes in activity. He figured that photography could already, or would presently be able to accept snap-shots in one tenth of a 2d and that a mechanism was possible “past which a prepared plate may be presented, focused, impressed, displaced, secured in the dark, and replaced by another within ii or three tenths of a 2d”. Plainly without noesis of Duboscq’s stéréofantascope, Herschel believed the “phenakistoscope” (sic) could very well be adjusted into a viewer for stereoscopic motion photography pairs. He also had high hopes for the development of colour photography, since he himself had already obtained promising results.[57]

On 7 April 1859, Belgian civil engineer and inventor Henri Désiré du Mont filed a Belgian patent for ix different versions of his Omniscope, of which nearly would show stereoscopic animation from stroboscopic discs or from cylinders with pictures on the outside. 1 version was built inside a peep-box and had a lens focusing a low-cal-beam to project the image on a frosted glass screen. Another design combined two zoetropes with Wheatstone’due south reflecting stereoscope in between. On two May 1861, while working near Paris, he filed French patent 49,520 for “a photographic device for reproduction of the successive phases of movement”. It would transport x or 12 photographic plates, ane by ane, from a slotted frame, past the camera lens, into a lower receptacle area. A moving shutter was synchronized to ensure the plates were only exposed when they were in the right identify.[58]
In Jan 1862, DuMont explained his motives and ambitions in a sit-in for the Société Française de Photographie, stating that photographers already knew how to photo subjects in motion, such as a galloping horse, but showed no involvement in recording multiple images. He believed that serial of successive images were much more than interesting considering of the harmony in lines and shadows, and because the captured poses of people would be much more than natural. He therefore developed his patented stereoscopic and stroboscopic viewing apparatus and a photographic camera that could capture the successive phases of movements with intervals of only fractions of seconds. He would attach the resulting images to the circumference of a cylindrical or prismatic drum, optionally leap together on a strip of fabric.[61]

In 1864, Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron patented two ideas for camera systems that would capture scenes in all their transformations over time.[60]

On nine November 1876, Wordsworth Donisthorpe filed a patent application for “an apparatus for taking and exhibiting photographs” that would record sequential images of moving objects. The recorded images would exist printed at equal distances autonomously on a strip of paper. The strip was to be wound between cylinders and carried past the eye of the observer, with a stroboscopic device to betrayal each picture momentarily. Such photographic strips only became commercially available several years later and Donisthorpe would not manage to record films before other pioneers.[59]

Thomas Edison demonstrated his phonograph on 29 Nov 1877, later on previous announcements of the device for recording and replaying audio had been published earlier in the year. An article in
Scientific American
concluded “Information technology is already possible, by ingenious optical contrivances, to throw stereoscopic photographs of people on screens in total view of an audience. Add the talking phonograph to counterfeit their voices and it would be difficult to bear the illusion of real presence much further”. Donisthorpe appear in the 24 January 1878 edition of
that he would advance that conception: “By combining the phonograph with the kinesigraph I will undertake not only to produce a talking picture of Mr. Gladstone which, with motionless lips and unchanged expression shall positively recite his latest anti-Turkish speech in his own voice and tone. Not only this, but the life size photograph itself shall move and gesticulate precisely every bit he did when making the oral communication, the words and gestures corresponding as in real life.”[62]
A Dr. Phipson repeated this idea in a French photography mag, simply renamed the device “Kinétiscope” to reflect the viewing purpose rather than the recording choice. This was picked up in the United States and discussed in an interview with Edison later in the yr.[59]

1874–1890s: The chronophotographers


Jules Janssen developed a big photographic revolver to document the stages of the transit of Venus in 1874, regarded every bit an important method to make up one’s mind the Astronomical Unit (the distance between world and the sunday). Several copies of the device were used at different geographic points. Many negative images of the different phases of Venus passing in front end of the sun were captured on glass discs, in an early form of fourth dimension-lapse photography. Unfortunately, the quality was non sufficient for a adding of the Astronomical Unit. Several photographic revolver discs with images have been preserved, but research concluded that all of the known discs contained test recordings of a model in front of a circular light source (or brightly lit surface). Although the photographs were most probable never intended to be presented as motion pictures, much afterwards images of one disc were transferred and animated into a very brusque stop motion picture. No original footage of the photographic revolver recordings of the actual Venus transit has still resurfaced.[63]
In 1875 and 1876, Janssen suggested that the revolver could too be used to document beast locomotion, specially birds since they would be hard to photograph by other means.

The oldest known motion sequence photographed in real-time, was created in the United states in 1878 by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge was hired by Leland Stanford to photograph Stanford’southward horses at full speed. Muybridge shot a very fuzzy unpublished picture in 1873 and a better i in 1877, just eventually fabricated several sequential series in 1878 with a line of cameras along the race rails. A press demonstration on June 15, 1878 at Stanford’south stock farm in Palo Alto, California convinced everyone attending (especially when an accident acquired by a broken strap was documented in the negatives). Several sequential series of running horses captured in June 1878 were soon published as
The Horse in Move
and the achievement received worldwide praise (as well as astonishment about the actual positions of the legs of running horses that were much less graceful than imagined).

Soon after Muybridge’s sequential pictures were published, or at least since Jan 1879, in that location were several people who placed these in zoetropes to watch them in movement.[64]
These were perchance the very first viewings of photographic motion pictures that were recorded in real-time. The quality of the pictures was express and the figures were mostly seen every bit silhouettes, often furthered by retouching of the pictures to go rid of photographic irregularities.

From 1879 to 1893 Muybridge gave lectures in which he projected silhouettes of his pictures with a device he chosen a zoopraxiscope. It used slightly anamorphic pictures traced from his photographs and painted onto glass discs. This tin be regarded as an early precursor to rotoscoping. Ane disc used actual anamorphic photographs of the skeleton of a horse posed in the different positions of a footstep in 1881.

Étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic gun in 1882, which was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a 2nd, recording the different phases of movements onto a unmarried plate. He used the chronophotographic gun for studying fauna and man locomotion, usually from still images. He would subsequently make early motion-picture show recordings on paper strips.

Prompted by the much publicized successes of Muybridge’s photographic sequences and other chronophotographic achievements, inventors in the late 19th century began to realize that the making and showing of photographic ‘moving pictures’ of a more useful or fifty-fifty indefinite length was a applied possibility. Many people working in the field followed the international developments closely through information in periodicals, patent filings, personal contact with colleagues and/or by getting their hands on new equipment.[65]

1887-1895: Anschütz’ Electrotachyscope


Betwixt 1886 and 1894 Ottomar Anschütz developed several unlike versions of his Schnellseher, or Electrotachyscope. The first version, presented betwixt 1887 and 1890, had 24 chronophotographic images on a rotating disk, illuminated from behind by a fast succession of electric flashes from a Geissler tube. Iv to seven spectators could watch the images on an opal drinking glass window inside a wall in a small darkened room. In 1890, Anschütz introduced a long cylindrical version with six small opal glass screens. In 1891, Siemens & Halske started manufacturing circa 152 examples of a money-operated peep-box Electrotachyscope. In Nov 1894, he introduced a patented projector with two intermittently rotating large disks and continuous light for 6×8 meter screenings. Between 22 Feb and thirty March, circa iv,000 people viewed his one,5-hr shows of twoscore scenes in a 300-seat hall in Berlin.[66]

1877-1900: Projection praxinoscope and Théâtre Optique


Émile Reynaud already mentioned the possibility of projecting moving images in his 1877 patent application for the praxinoscope. He presented a praxinoscope projection device at the Société française de photographie on 4 June 1880, just did not market his
praxinoscope a projection
earlier 1882. He then further adult the device into the Théâtre Optique which could project longer sequences with separate backgrounds, patented in 1888. He created several movies for the machine by painting colourful images on hundreds of gelatin plates that were mounted into cardboard frames and attached to a fabric band. The strip could be manually moved past a lens and mirror projection arrangement, sometimes back and along to show repetitive motions every bit desired for sure scenes. Some sound effects were synchronized past electro-magnetic devices, triggered by metal parts on the strip, while a score with some songs were to exist performed live. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900, Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500,000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris.

Other developments


Optics developed during the scientific revolution with a theory of lenses.

In 1740 and 1748, David Hume published
Treatise of Human being Nature
An Enquiry apropos Man Agreement, arguing for the associations and causes of ideas with visual images, forerunners to the language of film.

Phonographic recording of sound was invented in the 19th century.

Photographic film was created in the 19th century. The crucial invention of celluloid was fabricated in 1855 by Alexander Parkes, a substance he initially called Parkesine. This was marketed from 1869 by John and Isaiah Hyatt.



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Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precursors_of_film

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